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(Rig Veda Mandala 10 Sukta 93 Verse 14)

This to Duḥśīma Pṛthavāna have I sung, to Vena, Rama, to the nobles, and the King. They yoked five hundred, and their love of us was famed upon their way.

(Rig Veda Mandala 4 Sukta 57 Verse 6)

Auspicious Sita, come thou near: we venerate and worship thee That thou mayst bless and prosper us and bring us fruits abundantly.

Ramanandi Vaishnavas say that Rama mentioned here is Ramachandra, who incarnated in 24th Treta Yuga and Sita mentioned here is the consort of Rama. My question is, who is the Rama and Sita mentioned here?

  • Also Rig-Veda 10.111.07 and Taittirya Aranyaka 1.27.2-4 – Surya Kanta Bose Chowdhury Feb 9 at 18:19
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    @Surya Kanta Bose Chowdhury Griffith translation of Rig Veda 10.111.7 doesn't contain the phrase Rama, though we can find the same in Sanskrit verse. – Spark Sunshine Feb 9 at 18:46
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    How can Shri Rama and sita can be mentioned in vedas?they were born thousand years later when vedas were written. – Karmanya Nanda Feb 10 at 4:01
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    I think the Rig veda mandala 4 hymn is talking about fertile land in Rig veda.Sita was also a vedic Goddess representing fertile land . and I think sita of ramayana was named after this Vedic Goddess.so they are diffearent. – Karmanya Nanda Feb 10 at 4:04
  • @SuryaKantaBoseChowdhury can you write the exact verse of Taittirya aryanaka 1.27.2-4 here?? – Karmanya Nanda Feb 10 at 4:07
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These verses have nothing to do with the Rama and Sita of the Ramayana who would come way later.

Brererton and Jamison:

http://www.academia.edu/30160889/Stephanie_W._Jamison_Joel_P._Brereton_The_Rigveda_3_Volume_Set_-2014.pdf

IV.57(353) Agricultural Divinities

Hymns like this give us precious glimpses into everyday life and the technical ter-minology of particular professions. The hymn is notable also for its address to the Furrow (vs. 6, see also 7), the first appearance of the feminine noun sītā, renowned in later Sanskrit of course as the name of Rāma’s noble wife in the Rāmāyaṇa


अर्वाची सुभगे भव सीते वन्दामहे तवा | यथा नः सुभगाससि यथा नः सुफलाससि ||

इन्द्रः सीतां नि गर्ह्णातु ताम पूषानु यछतु | सा नः पयस्वती दुहाम उत्तराम-उत्तरां समाम ||

शुनं नः फाला वि कर्षन्तु भूमिं शुनं कीनाशा अभि यन्तु वाहैः | शुनम पर्जन्यो मधुना पयोभिः शुनासीरा शुनम अस्मासु धत्तम ||


  1. Become inclined our way, well-portioned Furrow. We will extol you,so that you will be well-portioned for us, so that you will be well-fruited for us.
  2. Let Indra lay down the Furrow; let Pūṣan extend her straight.Let her, full of milk, yield milk to us, summer after summer.
  3. For prosperity let our plowshares till through the earth; for prosperity let our plowmen advance with their draft-animals. Prosperity (let) Parjanya (be) with his honey and milk drinks. O Prosperity and Plow, place prosperity in us.

X.93

Verses 13–15 constitute a dānastuti, mentioning a number of patrons.

वावर्त येषां राया युक्तैषां हिरण्ययी | नेमधितान पौंस्या वर्थेव विष्टान्ता ||

पर तद दुःशीमे पर्थवाने वेने पर रामे वोचमसुरेमघवत्सु | ये युक्त्वाय पञ्च शतास्मयु पथा विश्राव्येषाम ||

अधीन नवत्र सप्ततिं च सप्त च | सद्यो दिदिष्ट तान्वःसद्यो दिदिष्ट पार्थ्यः सद्यो दिदिष्ट मायवः ||

  1. They whose (priestly gift) comes rolling, their (priestly gift) is golden, yoked with wealth— (it is) like manly forces when facing the other side, like one whose ends have been accomplished [?] at will.

  2. I proclaim this in front of Duḥśīma, Prthavāna, Vena, in front of Rāma the lordly, in front of the patrons who, having yoked five hundred, (sent) them along the path, destined for us, (so that) their (priestly gift) has become widely famed.

  3. In addition here and now seven and seventy at once did Tānva assign (to us), at once did Pārthya assign, at once did Māyava assign

1

In RV IV.57.6, the word sītā means furrow and in RV X.93.14, Rāma is either a reference to a psychological power or a rich prince at the time (not Rāma Dāśarathi).

From R. L. Kashyap's translation and notes on those RV verses:

4.57.5: May shuna and sīra be pleased by this our praise (1). May they sprinkle this (earth) with the bliss (3), which you have created in heaven (2).

[shuna-sīrau: The two indicate the forces of prāṇa (Vāyu) and of mind (Indra) which should be in full accord in all conscious work; ancient authorities interpret the two in different ways: Vayu-Sun (Yaska), Indra-Vayu (Shaunaka), Vāyu (Ashvalāyana), Indra and Surya (Ashvalāyana).

The physical meanings are: sīra: plough, plow; shuna: plough-share (or plow-share), a part of the plough that cuts the furrow; Note that S regards sīrā as 'rivers' in (4.19.8).]


4.57.6: Blissful sītā, be present, we offer our obeisance to you (1). May you may be felicitous to us (2). May you yield us abundant results (or fruits) (3).

[sītā: the furrow, symbolic of action;]


4.57.7: May Indra take hold of sītā (1). May Pushan guide her (2). May she, well stored with bliss, yield us the milk of knowledge, year after year (3).

[This is in Atharva Veda (3.17.4)]


10.93.14: In the presence of Duṣhīma, Pṛthavāne, Vene (1),
the mighty Rāma and the opulent princes, I proclaim this (2).
Having yoked five hundred horses (3),
their affection for us on the road is celebrated (4).

[The names such as Duṣhīma etc., in (14) and (15) refer to certain psychological powers. Any explanation given can only be a conjecture.]


From The Society of the Ramayana (by Ananda W. P. Guruge) which takes a more historical approach:

§ 13. Rāma which in the Ṛgveda X, 93, 14 is the name of a rich sacrificer bears no semblance to the hero of the story. Sītā, likewise, in Ṛgveda IV, 57, 6 and 7 is the "furrow" and even when addressed as "auspicious Sītā, come thou near: we venerate and worship thee" it is only a personification of the furrow or agriculture. Nevertheless, the story of Sītā's birth narrated in the Rāmāyaṇa indicates that Sītā's association with the furrow is to some extent preserved. Lakṣmaṇa, in its patronymic form Lakṣmaṇya only indicates that it is a very old proper name.

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