I wish to know the scriptures which mention about Garbha daana, Pumsavana, Seemontonnayana Samskars.
All the Smritis and various other scriptures like Puranas and Tantras talk about these Samskaras.
See the following verses from the Yajnvalkaya Smriti's Chapter 1:
XI.—In season, the Garbhadhana; before the quickening, the Pumsavana ; in the sixth or the eighth month, the Simanta; on delivery, the Jatakarman.—11. XII.—On the eleventh day, the Nama-ceremony ; in the fourth month, the Niskrama ; in the sixth month, the Annaprasana ; and the Chudakarana is to be performed according to family usage.
Mitakasra's commentary is useful in knowing what these Samskaras are all about:
- The Garbhddhana.
The "Garbhadhana" is the appellation of a ceremony expressed by the meaning of the word itself (Garbha= embryo, Adhana= placing or the ceremony of impregnation) and so also the other rites to be described later on. That Garbhadhana should be in "season," i.e., the time or season to be described hereafter.
- The Pumsavana.
The ceremony called ** Pumsavana " (must be performed) before the foetus begins to move.
- The Simantonnayana.
The " Simanta " ceremony (or parting the hair is to be performed) in the sixth or eighth month. The latter two ceremonies, the Pumsavana and the Simantonnayana, being rites for the consecration of the field (womb) are to be performed only once, and not at each pregnancy ; as it has been said by Devala : — " A Woman once properly consecrated is to be deemed consecrated for all subsequent conceptions."
- The Jatakarma
Ete " means * delivery * and is equal to "A+ite" which means * coming out or being born.' Coming out of the child from the uterus. On the child coming out of the womb, the ceremony of Jatakarma or birth rite is to be performed. •
- The Nama-karana.
On the eleventh day of birth, the ceremony of naming (takes place). That name must be indicative of paternal or maternal grandfather and the rest, or denote the family deity. As it has been said by Sankha : — ** The father should select the name denoting the family deity."
- The Niskrama,
In the fourth month the ceremony of Niskrama i.e., the ceremony of showing the child to the sun, should be performed.
- The Annaprasana.
In the sixth month the ceremony of Annaprasana or feeding the child with boiled rice.
- The Chudakarana
The ceremony of Chudakarana (or the first shaving of the head) should be done according to family custom. The phrase ** is to be performed " should be joined to each of the above sentences
Additional info is found from Balambhatta's commentary on the verse given above:
The names of the various ceremonies mentioned above, denote etymologically the nature of those ceremonies. They are what is technically known as Yoga-rudhl words. Tn the verse, the name Pumsavana is broken up from metrical exigencies, into it constituent part* Pumsah Savanam ** begetting a male." The word spanda not in the others, and so also the Srdddha is performed in the first only and not repeated in each separately."
Vopadeva.—According to Vopadeva this rule applies only where the samskSras of several children take place together. According to others, it applies to the performance of several samskaras together, when they were not performed in due time.
Smriti-arthua-Sara.—This is the opinion of the author of the Smriti-arthaSara also.
THE CEREMONY FOR SECURING PAINLESS DELIVERY.
Apastamba O. 8,—In the Apastamba Grihya Sutra the Pumsavana is the name of another ceremony also by which the child is quickly born, and the mother does not suffer the travails of child-birth for any length of time. It is a ceremony to shorten the period of travail and is called Ksipra Pumsavana:—"With a shallow cup that has not been used before, he draws water in the direction of the river's current ; at his wife's feet he lays down a Turyanti plant ; he should then touch his wife, who is soon to be delivered, on the head with text Yajus (II. 11-14) and should sprinkle her with the water, with the next three verses (II. 11-15—17). The Anvdlovana.—The Anvalovana (the ceremony for preventing disturbances which could endanger the embryo) is necessary for those who follow Asval4yana, and'not for the Taittiriyas. (See As. Gri., I. 13-1).
All this and further important info can be obtained from the "Yajavalakya Smriti with three commentaries" (Easily available on Archive.org). Check from page 22 onwards.
The MahAnirvAna Tantram has dealt with all these SamskAras in greatest of details.
It starts with Ritu SamskAra and then goes on to GarbhAdhAna and the others. Read the detailed description of how GarvAdhAna is done as per Tantras:
I have now spoken of Ritu-sangskara. Now listen to that relating to Garbhadhana (107). On the same night, or on some night having a date of an even number, after the ceremony, the husband should enter the room with his wife, and, meditating on Prajapati, should touch his wife and say: Mantra Hring, O Bed! be thou propitious for the begetting of a good offspring of us two (108-109). He should then with the wife get on the bed, and there sit with his face towards the East or the North. Then, looking at his wife, let him embrace her with his left arm, and, placing his right hand over her head, let him make japa of the Mantra on the different parts of her body (as follows) (110): Let him make japa over Mantra 122head of the Kama Vija a hundred times; over her chin of the Vagbhava Vija a hundred times; over the throat of the Rama Vija twenty times; and the same Vija a hundred times over each of her two breasts (111). He should then recite the Maya Vija ten times over her heart, and twenty-five times over her navel. Next let him place his hand on her member, and recite jointly the Kama and Vagbhava Vijas a hundred and eight times, and let him similarly recite the same Vijas over his own member a hundred and eight times; and then, saying the Vija "Hring," let him part the lips of her member, and let him go into her with the object of begetting a child (112-113). The husband should, at the time of the spending of his seed, meditate on Brahma, and, discharging it below the navel into the Raktikanadi in the Chitkunda, he should at the same time recite the following (114, 115): Mantra As the Earth is pregnant of Fire, as the Heaven is pregnant of Indra, as the Points of the compass are pregnant of the Air they contain, so do thou also become pregnant (by this my seed) (116). If the wife then, or at a subsequent period, conceive, the householder, O Maheshvari! should perform in the third month after conception the Pungsavana rite (117)
From the 9th Chapter
The Mantra which I have made bold above in Sanskrit is the following:
yathA agninA sagarvAbhu dvir yathA vajra dhArinA |
VAyunA dig garbhavati tathA garbhavati bhava || 9.117
And, note that Lord Shiva further states that for Shudra and mixed castes all these SamskAras are to be performed but without chanting any Mantras.
GarbhAdhAna Adi chudAkarma samAnam sarva jAtishu |
Shudra sAmanya jAtinAm sarvam etad amantrakam || 9.185
All the SamskAras, from GarbhAdhAna till Chudakarma, are common for all the castes (sarva jAtishu), but for Sudra and mixed-castes, these rites are to be performed without any Mantra recitation (amantrakam).