In His commentary of Gita (9/25), Sri Adi Sankaracharya included "Vinayaka, the group of Sixteen (?) (divine) Mothers, the Four Sisters" in "Bhutas" (Beings worshipped).

Who are these Sixteen (?) Mothers and (And the Four sisters?)

He is known to have accepted the Mother Goddess and Ganesha in Pancha-Devatas according to popular belief.

UMA HAIMAVATI is accepted by Acharya Sankar as the Saguna Brahma in His commentary of the Kenopanishad.

Kindly cite proper sources.


It seems from the Srimad-Bhagavatam that Adi-Shankara was simply referring to a variety of spirits:

ḍākinyo yātudhānyaś ca

kuṣmāṇḍā ye’rbhaka-grahāḥ

bhūta-preta-piśācāś ca


koṭarā revatī jyeṣṭhā

pūtanā mātṛkādayaḥ

unmādā ye hy apasmārā


svapna-dṛṣṭā mahotpātā

vṛddhā bāla-grahāś ca ye

sarve naśyantu te viṣṇor


English Translation: The evil spirits known as Ḍākinīs, Yātudhānīs and Kuṣmāṇḍas, the evil grahas who take form of children and the evil spirits like Bhūtas, Pretas, Piśācas, Yakṣas, Rākṣasas and Vināyakas, as well as spirits like Koṭarā, Revatī, Jyeṣṭhā, Pūtanā (I'm speculating these to be "Chatur Bhaginyadinis" Adi-Shankara is referring to) and Mātṛkā, are always ready to give trouble to the body, the life air and the senses, causing loss of memory, madness and bad dreams. Like the most experienced evil stars, they all create great disturbances, especially for children, but one can vanquish them simply by uttering Lord Viṣṇu’s name, for when Lord Viṣṇu’s name resounds, all of them become afraid and go away. (Srimad-Bhagavatam 10.6.27-29)

Also, notice the use of the term "vināyakāh" in the same verse. So I think, Adi-Shankara is simply referring to evil spirits when he says "vināyakamātṛgaṇacaturbhaginyādīni" in his commentary on Bhagavad-Gita 9.25.

By the way, Madhusudana Saraswati also includes Yakshas and Rakshasas along with Vinayakas and Matrikas in his commentary of Bhagavad-Gita.enter image description here


You must log in to answer this question.