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Was He not satisfied with His Transcendental worlds? Why He manifested His illusionary material potency "maya", somewhat a punishment based system of birth and death, heaven and hell, for jivatma (Souls; part and parcel of His conscious marginal potency) when He is known to be an ocean of mercy?

The question has been asked many a times, but no satisfactory answers have been found.

Some say it is His sport for time pass, for change, because He was getting bored. Doesn't make sense because He is the Supreme Bliss, and He has His Kingdom of timeless eternity. And also, no reason for mercy on souls, like that of Mahavishnu's case, which comes into picture after the very first creation.

And second part of it, why is the human birth in this material domain considered so important by the scriptures?

N.B. The question is not about cyclic creation/manifestation of material universes by Mahavishnu after "mahapralayas", when the jivas (souls, with causal body) were resting (semi-liberated) in the "mahodar" of Mahavishnu.

  • Comments are not for extended discussion; this conversation has been moved to chat. – Paṇḍyā May 5 at 6:50
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    This is a difficult question and I am reminded of Sadhguru's answer to the question "What is the purpose of life?" - "The purpose of life is life itself". See this: isha.sadhguru.org/us/en/wisdom/video/… – codeforester Jun 14 at 23:23
  • @codeforester question is asking "why" ??, there is nothing asked like "what" and "how" !! – user30612 Jun 15 at 4:09
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Why has God created material system/universe?

According to the Brahma Sutras, it is for sport; a pastime.

33. But (it is) mere sport, as in ordinary life.

And Ramanujacharya's commentary for that sutra:

The motive which prompts Brahman--all whose wishes are fulfilled and who is perfect in himself--to the creation of a world comprising all kinds of sentient and non-sentient beings dependent on his volition, is nothing else but sport, play. We see in ordinary life how some great king, ruling this earth with its seven dvîpas, and possessing perfect strength, valour, and so on, has a game at balls, or the like, from no other motive than to amuse himself; hence there is no objection to the view that sport only is the motive prompting Brahman to the creation, sustentation, and destruction of this world which is easily fashioned by his mere will.

Then the next question might arise, "Why did he create a world of suffering?" And that is answered in the next sutra:

34. Not inequality and cruelty, on account of there being regard; for so (Scripture) declares.

Ramanujacharya's commentary:

...The reply to this is 'not so, on account of there being regard'; i.e. 'on account of the inequality of creation depending on the deeds of the intelligent beings, gods, and so on, about to be created.'--Sruti and Smriti alike declare that the connexion of the individual souls with bodies of different kinds--divine, human, animal, and so on--depends on the karman of those souls; compare 'He who performs good works becomes good, he who performs bad works becomes bad. He becomes pure by pure deeds, bad by bad deeds' (Bri. Up. IV, 4, 5)....

  • Doesn't this make brahman either childish or a sadist? – I will close your question Nov 24 at 17:17
  • @LazyLubber The sadist criticism is specifically refuted in sutra 34 that I linked. Now the "problem of evil" is a problem in the Judaic religions, since God in that system does not take into consideration karma. – Ikshvaku Nov 24 at 20:44
  • @Ikshvaku .. Answer is good when the question asked is; what is material world for God? It is a sport or pastime for Him. Ok. correct. But the question is "why ?" and the reason, its main cause why He made it, "duniya bananewale kya tere jehan mein samai tune kahe ko duniya banai?" He made (satya-sankalpit) or played this pastime for Him, for the fulfilment for His pleasure/desire. Or He did it for the fulfilment of our desire to enjoy like Him, when we were in the spiritual sky before the material evolution. – user30612 Dec 3 at 18:16
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The Nasadiya Sukta , also known as the Hymn of Creation, is the 129th hymn of the 10th mandala of the Rigveda (10:129). It is concerned with cosmology and the origin of the universe.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nasadiya_Sukta

The 7th one in the Hymn, ends with question itself:

Whence all creation had its origin, the creator, whether he fashioned it or whether he did not, the creator, who surveys it all from highest heaven, he knows — or maybe even he does not know.

The saints/rishis of Rig Vedic period, with so much of incisive thinking and spiritual attainments, could not fathom the purpose of creation of the Universe!!!

Can we?

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    Yes! Vedas have three divisions; viz karma, jnana, and upasana. Karma part is most verbose for basic audiences. The jnana or knowledge part has fewer verses but is meant for intermediate level of knowledge seekers. The shortest, Upasana-kand is the ultimate knowledge about God and Creations, which has been futher explained and discussed about in the Vedanta and the prime Upnishadas. The eternal worlds including God and His energies (spiritual and material) are neither created nor distroyed. Nevertheless, God has expanded His spiritual energies as Supersouls (attached) and souls (detached). – user30612 Oct 23 at 17:04
  • And He has transformed His material energy into five matter components, i.e. space, air, fire, water, earth. The transformation of material energy (a detached energy of God) into its matter components is known as creation and vice versa, the reversal is mahapralaya or destruction. N.B. The above cited verse of Rig Veda is telling about the ambiguity in understanding material creation with material senses which have four defects, viz. "bhrama", "pramada", "vipralipsa" and "karnapatava – user30612 Oct 23 at 17:19
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    Requesting srimmanarayana to elaborate answer here. Seems like the wiki entry has been corrupted. Wiki is now has a copy paste of one of the comments . So can't make anything out of it – Carmen sandiego Nov 5 at 23:55
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    @Carmensandiego: I have added one more link to sacred texts, which contains the Nasadiya Sukta. – srimannarayana k v Nov 6 at 7:16
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Today, the problem is that with degraded intellect of mankind in Kaliyuga, people have started believing that purpose of life is mere gratification of senses and living for temporary body. No more now is Ashrams stages followed by Aryans like Brahmcharya, Grihasta, Vanprastha and Sanyassa. This has been heightened by foreign rulers in India by insulting Hinduism and motivating Hindus into other religion conversion where Body's senses pleasures are the end and bodies are worshipped as soul and preserved in graves.

The Remedy of Kaliyuga

(39-40) With their minds constantly full of stress, emaciated by famine and taxes in times of scarcity with droughts on the surface of the earth, oh King, the people of Kali-yuga will be troubled by countless worries and live in fear. Lacking in clothing, food, drink, rest, sexual love [vyavâya, also called 'change'], bathing and personal ornaments they will appear like ghostly creatures. (41) In the age of Kali one will even over a single coin develop enmity [5.14 and 5.14: 26], reject friendly relations, kill oneself [be suicidal] and even kill one's relatives [domestic violence]. (42) Only interested in the petty service of the stomach and the genitals one, even being born in a respectable family, will not protect the elderly parents, the wife and the children.

Uttara Geeta

2.40. Although cows may be of different colors but the color of their milk is one and the same, even so in the case of the jiva, the bodies may look different but the atman is one and the same in all.

  1. Food, sleep, fear and sexual desire, man has in common with brutes; it is only the addition of knowledge that makes him a man; if, therefore, he is devoid of this he is but equal to a brute.
  2. In the morning a man performs the necessities of life, in the middle of the day he fills his stomach with food, in the evening he satisfies the cravings of his sexual desire and afterwards falls into the embraces of deep sleep – such is the case with beasts also.
  3. Hundred millions of jivas and thousands of nadabindus are constantly destroyed and absorbed in the All-Purity.
  4. Therefore, the conviction that “I am Brahman“ is known to be the sole cause of emancipation (moksha) for great souls (mahatmas).
  5. Two words bind and liberate the jivas respectively: the firm belief of ‘I‘ and ‘mine‘ holds fast and binds the jiva down, and the absence or want of the same liberates him from all bondage.
  6. When the mind becomes free from all desires and passions, then only the idea of duality ceases. When there arises that state of Advaita feeling [all in One and One in all], there dwells the Supreme Foot of Brahman.
  7. As a hungry person simply wastes his energy in vain when he strikes the air with blows, so too a reader of the Vedas and other shastras simply wastes his time and energy if, notwithstanding his study, he fails to realize “I am Brahman.“

3.1. Shastras are innumerable, and it takes a long time even to grasp their real meaning; life is short, but the obstacles are many; therefore, the intelligent should only take the real meaning as a swan (Paramhansa) separates the milk out of milky water

  1. The Puranas, the Bharatam, the Vedas, the various other shastras, wife, children and family, are simply so many obstacles on the path of practice of yoga.
  2. Viewing life to be very impermanent, seek to know only the indestructible Sat (Existence); give up the unnecessary reading of books, and worship Truth.

  3. Out of all the beautiful objects that exist in this world, most are intended either to please the tongue or give sexual pleasure. Thou canst relinquish the pleasures of both; then where is the need of this world?

  4. The sacred rivers, after all, are but waters, and the idols worshipped are but nothing but stones, metals or earth. Yogins go neither to the former nor worship the later, because within themselves exist all sacred places and the synthesis of all idols.
  5. Fire (Agni) is the god of the twice-born who are given to sacrifice; the sages call the atman within them their god. Whilst the less intelligent worship their idols, the yogins see Brahman equally everywhere, in the fire, within themselves, in idols and all around.
  6. As a blind man cannot see the sun although it lights up the whole world, so too those spiritually blind cannot perceive the Omnipresent Eternal Peace that encompasses the entire cosmos.
  7. Wherever the mind goes, it sees the Paramatman there because all and everything is filled with the one Brahman.
  8. As the serene bright sky may be seen with all its forms, names and colors, so too he who is able to realize the idea that “I am Brahman“—in spite of all forms, names and colors is—alone able to see verily the eternal Paramatman
  9. Where the yogins stay for one second or even half a second, that place becomes sacred like Kurukshetra, Prayaga and Naimisharanya, because the thought of spirituality even for one brief second has a greater effect than one thousand million sacrifices.
  10. The yogin who apprehends this cosmos as nothing but the one Brahman at once destroys both virtue and vice, and consequently for him there is neither friend nor enemy, happiness nor misery, gain nor loss, good nor bad, honor nor dishonor, praise nor blame; all these become alike to him.

Suffering comes to a person when he fails to realize his real self in the given human birth, rather lives like an animal in gratification of senses and believing body to be eternal. Animals, insects suffer because of lack of intellect, thats why human birth(capable of self realization) is called so precious in scriptures.

The_Complete_Works_of_Swami_Vivekananda/Volume_5/Notes_from_Lectures_and_Discourses/Sadhanas_or_Preparations_for_Higher_Life

The struggle is the great lesson. Mind you, the great benefit in this life is struggle. It is through that we pass. If there is any road to Heaven, it is through Hell. Through Hell to Heaven is always the way. When the soul has wrestled with circumstance and has met death, a thousand times death on the way, but nothing daunted has struggled forward again and again and yet again — then the soul comes out as a giant and laughs at the ideal he has been struggling for, because he finds how much greater is he than the ideal. I am the end, my own Self, and nothing else, for what is there to compare to me own Self? Can a bag of gold be the ideal of my Soul? Certainly not! My Soul is the highest ideal that I can have. Realising my own real nature is the one goal of my life.

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Every action (present) has a reaction (future) and had a cause (past). There is no action (work) without a cause. Every cause has its cause(s) material or eternal. God is the cause of all causes but He Himself has no cause. He is the "sarv kaaran-kaaranam", He is the cause of His "Brahman" and "Parmatama" revelations too.

Nevertheless, the different religious thoughts differently explain "how?" the material existence comes into being but answering the "why?" is difficult..... always.... in this case too!!

The Bhagvatam mahapuran, although has the answer in third and fifth volumes (scand). We all have unique eternal identities as unconditioned souls (as the salokya-mukta jivas, who resided in the same domain of Parmatama, but we have never ever participated/entered the Bhagvat-dham, higher "vaikuntha", the realm with His eternal pastimes, due to lack of higher eternal knowledge, desire, love and servitude). We have our eternal roots in the God's Kingdom or lower "vaikuntha", which is without the eternal pastimes (eternal domain without Sakhayam, Vatsalya and Madhurya Rasa). Somehow, when there near the "vaikuntha", beside/on shores of the "virja-river" (a.k.a causal ocean, which divides the spritual worlds from material worlds) we had acquired a hidden desire to be the absolute enjoyers like God or Bhagwan. Knowing this desire He, the All-indwelling, manifested His external energy, i.e. material potency into its eight components (the three for subtle and the five for the gross existence), the illusionary energy for the fulfillment of jiva-atamas' (or "tatashatha", marginal potencies') desire to become enjoyer or "bhokta brahman", somewhat similar to the Almighty, "Brahman-tatva", which controls both "jiva-tatva" and "maya-tatva". These three are eternal elements, neither created nor destroyed. The permanent eternal identity of the soul is as a servant of God. However, we are in illusion to temporarily enjoy in ignorance under the influence of His illusionary potency, i.e. maya, which is also eternal servant of God. In B.Gita too He has hinted about it in verse #7.27 as:

इच्छाद्वेषसमुत्थेन द्वन्द्वमोहेन भारत|सर्वभूतानि सम्मोहं सर्गे यान्ति परन्तप||

ichchhā-dveṣha-samutthena dvandva-mohena bhārata sarva-bhūtāni sammohaṁ sarge yānti parantapa.

By word "sarge" meaning at the onset of material universe creation, Krishna is indicating that at the very start of incarnate existence, all creatures are inveigled into the loops of various dualities such as good and better, higher bliss and highest bliss, honour and dishonour, controller and controlled, true-ego and false-ego, which are generated by the desire for what is agreeable and the aversion to what is disagreeable. The word "sarge" meaning at the very beginning of material creation. Or more precisely, transmigration of jiva-atma in the transformed maya. Thus, our atma or eternal soul, blissful eternal identity without any causal body, became an embodied being, with having a causal, a subtle and a gross body.

And answer to the second part; the human life is considered to be the most important within the material system because of our freedom to choose (the basis of karma based existence, not to be confused and compared with any constitutional right and/or its recent amendments) which is not granted even to the demigods. Truely said, "karma pradhan vishwa kari/rachi rakha". Arjuna invested his time in developing friendship with Krishna and in return Krishna removed all the hurdles from his life and made him victorious. Similarly we should invest our time in developing friendship with Krishna. It’s very easy to do. We just need to dovetail our activities (karma) as per Krishna’s advice. And Krishna assures us, “In this endeavour there is no loss or diminution, and a little progress on this path can protect one from the most dangerous type of fear.” (B.Gita# 2.40)

A related upnishada story; reminding the demigods who had once forgotten their limits, the Brahaman (personified) tought the lesson to agni, demigod of the fire energy; the vayu, the demigod of wind energy, and many more. The demigods have no choice to perform beyond their assigned limited duties. They seem to be at higher levels of material enjoyment but they don't have the freedom of surrendering karma onto God like the humans. It has been explained in the Upnishada, "sur-patim brahmam padam yaachate". Lord of the material heaven, Indra, wants the post of Lord Brahma, the ultimate ascending material designation. The tourism of higher material domains here, however, is for material sense enjoyment which is not a journey for the true destination, back to the permanent eternal bliss.

And not the least, during His eternal Pastimes in the mundane worlds, "Avatar-Lila" (not revealed in Brahman and in Parmatama manifestation) He Himself honours the human life form unavailable to even the big demigods, the mahadevas, when He comes between us to remind us of our eternal roots and protect us from all the material bliss in the illusion. He wants to remind us our chance to enter into the eternal pastimes with Him in the higher "vaikunthas" and the highest realm, "goloka".

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