It is mentioned in the puranas, that there are fourteen planetary systems. I would like to know, What is the life span of the people who are living in lower planetary systems (from Atala to Patala lokas).
The lower planetary system (Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talātala, Mahātala, Rasātala and Pātāla) is also known as बिलस्वर्ग (subterranean heaven) and fear of old age and death is not there.
न वा एतेषु वसतां दिव्यौषधिरसरसायनान्नपानस्नानादिभिराधयो व्याधयो वलीपलितजरादयश्च
देहवैवर्ण्यदौर्गन्ध्यस्वेदक्लमग्लानिरिति वयोऽवस्थाश्च भवन्ति ॥ १३ ॥
Since the residents of these planets drink and bathe in juices and elixirs made from wonderful herbs, they are freed from all anxieties and physical diseases. They have no experience of grey hair, wrinkles or invalidity, their bodily lusters do not fade, their perspiration does not cause a bad smell, and they are not troubled by fatigue or by lack of energy or enthusiasm due to old age. ~ ŚB 5.24.13
न हि तेषां कल्याणानां प्रभवति कुतश्चन मृत्युर्विना भगवत्तेजसश्चक्रापदेशात् ॥ १४ ॥
They live very auspiciously and do not fear death from anything but death’s established time, which is the effulgence of the Sudarśana cakra of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. ~ ŚB 5.24.14
Though, Danavas & Daityas have fear from Sudarśana chakra (as mentioned above) and Nagas & Sarpas have fear from Garuda (as mentioned in ŚB 5.24.29) but no age limit is defined for them. People who lives in heaven also have to come back, similarly residents of the lower planetary system also have to take another birth according to their karma.
Also, residents of lower planetary system are not humans like us. The ruler/residents of lower planetary system are:
- Atala: Bala (the son of Maya Dānava)
- Vitala: Lord Śiva
- Sutala: Bali Mahārāja
- Talātala: Maya Dānava
- Mahātala: Sarpas- Kuhaka, Takṣaka, Kāliya and Suṣeṇa
- Rasātala: Dānava and Daityas - Paṇis, Nivāta-kavacas, Kāleyas and Hiraṇya-puravāsīs
- Pātāla: Nagas - Vāsuki, Śaṅkha, Kulika, Mahāśaṅkha, Śveta, Dhanañjaya, Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Śaṅkhacūḍa, Kambala, Aśvatara and Devadatta.
Lord Anantadeva/Saṅkarṣaṇa (of thousands of hoods) lives below Pātāla.
The inhabitants of the lower worlds (Atala, Vitala, Sutala etc upto Patala) are all various kinds of demons. Yet they seem to have a much more pleasurable and luxurious lifestyle compared to the gods who live in the heavens.
Also, more importantly, they are not troubled by old age.
Quoting from Devi Bhagavatam Book 8; Chapter 18:
O Devarsi! At the lower part of this earth there are seven places (caves or nether regions). Their diameter is one Ayuta Yoyanas. In all the seasons, all sorts of enjoyments can be had at these places. The first is Atala; the second is Vitala. Next come in order :-- Sutala, Talâtala, Mahâtala. Rasâtala, and lastly (the seventh) the Pâtâla. O Vipra! Thus the seven holes or regions are reckoned. These are termed the Vila-Svargas and they yield the happinesses, greater than those of the Heavens. These are all filled with lovely amorous enjoyments, prosperity and happiness. They are crowded with gardens and Vihâras (the places of enjoyments). And these Vihâras are all decorated tastefully so as to furnish special tastes of enjoyments. The powerful Daityas, Dânavas, and Snakes enjoy here great happiness incessantly, united lovingly with their sons, wives and friends. The householders also pass their time in ease and enjoyments, surrounded by their friends and attendants. They are all Mâyâvis (Magicians) and their resolves are not thwarted; they are more than God in this respect and they are filled with desires. They all live with joy and in enjoyments and they find pleasure in all the seasons. Mâyâ, the Lord of Mâyâ had built separate cities, as he liked, in those nether regions. Besides he has created thousands of dwelling-houses, palaces, and town-gates, studded with gems and jewels. The assembly halls, Chatvaras, and Chaityas are elaborately decorated and rare even to the Suras. The Nâgas and Asuras live in those houses with their consorts; doves and pigeons and female Mayinâ birds are hovering there. In those places many plots marked out artificially and excellent rows of palatial buildings of the Lords of those Vivaras adorn there. Very big gardens also exist there. All these cheer the minds; and, to add to their beauty, many places of fruits and flowers are close by, fit for the comfort and enjoyments of the ladies. The tanks and pools of water are crowded with various birds; the lakes are filled with clear waters and the Pâthîna fishes abound there. The aquatic animals move in the waters, violently agitating them. Various kinds of lotuses, Kumud, Utpala, Kahlâra, blue lotus, red lotus, are fully blown in these lakes or reservoirs of water. The gardens there are all overcrowded with the Vihâras of the inhabitants there and echoed with the sweet melodious music, pleasing to the senses. For there, these places seem to vie with the Heavens. No fear is there, whether during the day or during the night. The gems on the crest of snakes constantly illumine the environments and there is no darkness there at any time. The food there is prepared with the divine medicines and they drink and bathe with these medicinal plants; so no disease attacks them. Old age, fever, indigestion, paleness, sweats, bad smells, or loss of energy or any other source of trouble cannot trouble them. The people are always happy and good.