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There are four Yugas and four Vedas. Do Veda and Yuga have link like:

  1. Rig Veda : Satya Yuga
  2. Yajur Veda: Treta Yuga
  3. Saam Veda: Dvapara Yuga
  4. Atharva Veda: Kali Yuga
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The four world Ages or Yugas is a Puranic invention. In the Vedic literature, there is no association of the world Ages with the purported four Yugas.

The names Kṛta, Tretā, Dvāpara and Kali has been derived from the Vedic literature and are associated with the game of dice. Again, and Again they appear in the Vedic literature in the context of the gambling.

Ṛg Veda १0.३४ speaks about a gambler grieving over the loss of his possession. A connection between the name of the Yugas and the game of dice could be found in Taittrīya Samhitā (TS) ४.३.३.१-२ in an invocation to the five world directions (cardinal points plus zenith) which is used during the building of an altar. The game of playing dice was done near the altar (see references to Baudhyānaśrautasūtra below). Each direction is associated with different elements such as a season, a deity, a sage and a certain age in the life of a calf.

प्राची॑ दि॒शां व॑स॒न्त ऋ॑तू॒नाम॒ग्निर्दे॒वता॒ ब्रह्म॒ द्रवि॑णं त्रि॒वृथ्स्तोमः॒ स उ॑ पञ्चद॒शव॑र्तनि॒स्त्र्यवि॒र्वयः॑ कृ॒तमया॑नां पुरोवा॒तो वातः॒ सान॑ग॒ ऋषि॑र्दख्षि॒णा दि॒शां ग्री॒ष्म ऋ॑तू॒नामिन्द्रो॑ दे॒वता ख्ष॒त्रं द्रवि॑णम्पञ्चद॒शः स्तोमः॒ स उ॑ सप्तद॒शव॑र्तनिर्दित्य॒वाड्वय॒स्त्रेताया॑नां दख्षिणाद्वा॒तो वातः॑ सना॒तन॒ ऋषिः॑ प्र॒तीची॑ दि॒शां व॒र्षा ऋ॑तू॒नां विश्वे॑ दे॒वा दे॒वता॒ विट् द्रवि॑ण सप्तद॒शः स्तोमः॒ स उ॑वेकवि॒शव॑र्तनिस्त्रिव॒थ्सो वयो द्वाप॒रोऽया॑नाम्पश्चाद्वा॒तो वातो॑ऽह॒भून॒ ऋषि॒रुदी॑ची दि॒शा श॒रदृ॑तू॒नाम्मि॒त्रावरु॑णौ दे॒वता॑ पु॒ष्टं द्रवि॑णमेकवि॒शः स्तोमः॒ स उ॑ त्रिण॒वव॑र्तनिस्तुर्य॒वाड्वय॑ आस्क॒न्दो-ऽया॑नामुत्तराद्वा॒तो वातः॑ प्र॒त्न ऋषि॑रू॒र्ध्वा दि॒शा हे॑मन्तशिशि॒रावृ॑तू॒नाम्बृह॒स्पति॑र्दे॒वता॒ वर्चो॒ द्रवि॑णं त्रिण॒वः स्तोमः॒ स उ॑ त्रयस्त्रि॒शव॑र्तनिः पष्ठ॒वाद्वयो॑ऽभि॒भूरया॑नां विष्वग्वा॒तो वातः॑ सुप॒र्ण ऋषिः॑ पि॒तरः॑ पिताम॒हाः परेऽव॑रे॒ ते नः॑ पान्तु॒ ते नो॑ऽवन्त्व॒स्मिन्ब्रह्म॑न्न॒स्मिन्ख्ष॒त्रेऽस्यामा॒शिष्य॒स्याम्पु॑रो॒धाया॑म॒स्मिन्कर्म॑न्न॒स्यां दे॒वहूत्याम् ।। ४.३.३.१-२

We also find the name of the Yugas in the Vajasaneyi Saṃhitā ३0.१८: अक्षराजाय कितवं कृतायादिनवदर्शं त्रेतायै कल्पिनं द्वापरायाधिकल्पिनम् आस्कन्दाय सभास्थाणुं मृत्यवे गोव्यच्छम् अन्तकाय गोघातं क्षुधे यो गां विकृन्तन्तं भिक्षमाण ऽ उपतिष्ठति दुष्कृताय चरकाचार्यं पाप्मने सैलगम् ॥ ३॰.१८

Furthermore, another reference is also found in Taittrīya Brāhmaṇa ३.४.१६; अक्षराजाय कितवम् । कृताय सभाविनम् । त्रेताया आदिनवदर्शम् । द्वापराय बहिःसदम् । कलये सभास्थाणुम् । दुष्कृताय चरकाचार्यम् । अध्वने ब्रह्मचारिणम् । पिशाचेभ्यः सैलगम् । पिपासायै गोव्यच्छम् । निर्ऋत्यै गोघातम् । क्षुधे गोविकर्तम् । क्षुत्तृष्णाभ्यां तम् । यो गां विकृन्तन्तं माँ सं भिक्षमाण उपतिष्ठते ।

That the word Kṛta mean success can be derived from the Baudhyānaśrautasūtra २.८-९, wherein the meticulous details for setting up the sacred ritual fires are described. Therein it is stated that दक्षिणतोऽधिदेवनं करोति, towards the south he prepares the gambling place, then he pours forty-nine dice तदेकान्नपञ्चाशतोऽक्षान्निवपत्यथ. Continuing in verse ९ it says that four persons sit around the dice. “The Kṛta – the game is over”, so saying they depart, कृतंकृतमित्येव व्यपगच्छन्ति. “The cow has been won”, so saying they get up, द्यूता गौरित्युक्त्वोत्तिष्ठन्त्यथैभ्यो.

The use of the word Kali can be found in the Atharva Veda ७.१॰९.१ इदमुग्राय बभ्रवे नमो यो अक्षेषु तनूवशी । घृतेन कलिं शिक्षामि स नो मृडातीदृशे ॥१॥, wherein the prayer for success in gambling are brought forward. In this hymn, Kali is invoked and is propitiated with clarified butter as a means of helping the gambler.

Thus, the association of the four Yugas in the Vedic literature has been limited to the four results of the throw of the dice. Unlike the astronomical time scales as postulated in the Puranas, Vedas are closer to scientific reality.

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