The question is formulated in the vocabulary of Puranic and Vedantic literature. However, the answer below will be based on the merely on the original Vedas and Vedāṅgas.
The Vedas and the ancillary Dharmaśhāstras distinguish between the tort and sin. The former is designated as aparādha (अपराध), whereas the latter is called pāpa (पाप).
Further, in Vedas broadly two types of injunctions mandated for the subjects: dhārmic and naitika can be gleaned.
Disobeying dhārmic injunctions was considered as sin whereas infringing the naitika that is the social injunctions was considered aparādha. Some acts were considered both pāpa and aparādha. The ambit of the dhārma is far greater than the scope of tort. The sins are categorized at the level of mind, speech and acts. For instance, if someone contemplates harming another person but just changes his intention before doing the very act, it will be categorized under the pāpa but not aparādha. For instance, Rg Veda speaks about presenting the defendants in front of the King who orders tattooing of the skin of the thieves as a punishment daṇḍa (दण्ड) for their sins pāpa. See RV 1.24.12 – 15, RV 5.19.9, RV 7.86.5.
The aparādha can be atoned in very this life but the scope of punishment for disobeying dhārmic injunctions extend beyond this life.
The word sin occurs in different contexts and form in the Ṛg Veda. For example, the word vṛjinā has been used as a synonym for sin which means something which is forbidden (see RV 5.3.11). In another place, the word aśivā is used as a synonym for vṛjināni (RV 5.12.5).
Sins committed on a personal level are encountered frequently in Vedas. Human thoughts are always known to Varuṇa (see Sauṇka Samhita 4.16.2). In the Vedas the acts of lying, breaking the vow, the false oath has been considered as heavy sins. For example, in the Madhyandina Saṃhitā (39.4) besides praying for food, animal, and fame, the supplicant makes a sincere prayer for obtaining truth in his speech.
Similarly, in the context of a false oath, the prayer of त्रिशिरास्त्वाष्ट्रः Triṣrāstvāstra (RV 10.9.8) is noteworthy.
इदमापः प्र वहत यत्किं च दुरितं मयि ।
यद्वाहमभिदुद्रोह यद्वा शेप उतानृतम्
Vasiṣṭha provides a list of different sins in his prayer in (RV 7.86.6), wherein he says that it is not our determination rather his seduction, recklessness, alcohol, gambling, or anger has cheated on him and even in his sleep he commits such sins.
न स स्वो दक्षो वरुण ध्रुतिः सा सुरा मन्युर्विभीदको अचित्तिः ।
अस्ति ज्यायान्कनीयस उपारे स्वप्नश्चनेदनृतस्य प्रयोता ॥६॥
Madhyandina Saṃhitā (40.3) alludes to the fact that those who act ignoring the inner voice are committing heavy sins.
असुर्या नाम ते लोका ऽअन्धेन तमसावृताः ।
ताम्स् ते प्रेत्यापि गच्छन्ति ये के चात्महनो जनाः
Interestingly, in the context of familial sins, the feelings of resentment against the enemies are not considered as sin, however, the feelings of resentment against one’s own family members is a sin (Sauṇka Saṃhitā 3.30.3). Similarly, those who harm their friends are doomed (Sauṇka Samhita 20.128.2). Another interesting aspect is that the marriage of a younger brother before the marriage of the elder brother is considered equivalent to the sin of abortion (Sauṇka Saṃhitā 6.112.3). Similarly, it is stated that in the household where guests do not partake the meal, the sins of that household are not reduced (Sauṇka Saṃhitā 9.6.26-27).
A similar instruction can be found in the prayers of Áṅgiras (RV 10.117.6)
Regarding the societal sins, we find prayers by Atri (RV 5.85.7), pleading that if he has committed any sin against any person to whom he loves or against his neighbor who always lives nearby or if he has hurt unknown person, Varuṇa should release him from those sins.
अर्यम्यं वरुण मित्र्यं वा सखायं वा सदमिद्भ्रातरं वा ।
वेशं वा नित्यं वरुणारणं वा यत्सीमागश्चकृमा शिश्रथस्तत् ॥७॥
In a similar vein, in the context of economical sins, Atharvingra is praying to Savita (Sauṇka Samhita 7.115. 3 – 4) that he has segregated the wealth earned through the pious mean from the impious means and Savita should just allow him to have wealth earned through pious means.
In the Ṛg Veda, there is a discussion about seven deference sapta maryādāḥ (RV 10.5.6) which has been explained by Sāyaṇa as the prohibition on drinking alcohol, gambling, enjoying another’s wife, hunting, blaspheming or defaming among others (कामजेभ्यः क्रोधजेभ्यश्चोद्धृताः पानमक्षाः स्त्रियो मृगया दण्डः पारुष्यमन्यदूषणमिति सप्त मर्यादाः). This has been further explained by Yāsaka in Nirukta (6.27) and corroborated by Manu in his Mānva Smriti (7.48 – 50)
सप्त मर्यादाः कवयस्ततक्षुस्तासामेकामिदभ्यंहुरो गात् ।
आयोर्ह स्कम्भ उपमस्य नीळे पथां विसर्गे धरुणेषु तस्थौ
Then there are sins which have been committed out of carelessness and ignorance. Pardon is sought from Varuṇa for such sins as well (RV 7.89.5). Infamous, violent and cunning people tend to commit sin (RV 8.18.14) and so does the people with a foolish brain (RV 10.63.12).