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A Christian once asked me this question when I was explaining him about karma and rebirth philosophy in Hinduism. I told him that if anything happens in anybody's life, it is the result of their karma in a previous birth. He then raised a question with the following example:

If a thief stealing from a house is due to the sin of the houseowner in a previous birth, when a judge gives punishment to the accused, ideally the accused should not be found guilty.

How can karma and rebirth theory be defended against this argument?

So, did the thief not commit a sin because the robbery was destined to happen due to the houseowner's karma?

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  • Your question has been adequately answered here: hinduism.stackexchange.com/a/37351/11726 – Ikshvaku Dec 16 '19 at 15:22
  • Yes, its because of Karma but can the thief or judge find or show everyone the exact Karmas of houseowners to everyone in court? Only omniscient God and some real powerful Yogi can do that. Normal society Dharma is run based on the laws given by Manus made for low intellect bound souls and dharma applies to concrete things like matter which are seen and grasped by logic not that are twisted with shrewdness and word jugglery. Accurate Law of Karma applies to highly evolved beings who can perceive it but not common beings of earth, just like for an animal there is no God nor religion nor moksha – user16530 Dec 19 '19 at 22:57
  • The houseowner deserved to be robbed. If he was punished by king (in form of taxes accepted by shastras), then his punishment is complete. but if he was robbed by a thief, his punishment is still complete, but now the sin gets transferred to the robber, because the robber did not follow shastras. See hinduism.stackexchange.com/a/37351/4435 – ram Mar 5 at 0:26
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Before coming to the example, one needs to understand the two types of karma in play here - Prarabdha and Kriyamana. But I will also include Sanchita karma for good order sake.

  • Sanchita Karma

It is all your accumulated karma of past lives.

  • Prarabdha karma

It is that portion of Sanchita karma that will fructify in this life. One cannot escape it.

  • Kriyamana karma

It is the karma that is being made for the future i.e. fruits of which we will experience in this lifetime or next lifetime. If next lifetime then it gets stored into Sanchita karma

In mathematical terms

SanchitaL = SanchitaL-1PrarabdhaL + KriyamanaL

Where

SanchitaL and SanchitaL-1 are accumulated karma at the end of life L and L-1 respectively

PrarabdhaL is that portion of SanchitaL-1 experienced in life L

KriyamanaL are the net new actions in life L over which you have control

So coming to example , the house owner losing wealth is because of his Prarabdha karma. If the thief didn't steal it , he would have lost it via another theft , poor investment decision etc.

The thief committing the robbery has incurred bad Kriyamana karma. So if he didn't receive punishment in this life then he would get it in one of his future lives because the Kriyamana karma will get stored into Sanchita karma. In one of his next rebirths he would suffer losses accordingly.

The judge is carrying out his prescribed duty. If he didn't carry out his duty i. e. punish the robber , then he would incur bad Kriyamana karma .

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[If a thief stealing from a house is due to the sin of the houseowner in a previous birth, when a judge gives punishment to the accused, ideally the accused should not be found guilty.]

This is a question about justice that can not be answered by any human. Why is it so? The reason is that it is Ishvara who gives the fruits of karma.

The fruit of action is from Him, this being the logical position.

Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sri Sanakracharya III.ii.38

This suggests that any question like the one asked here that asks how justice is ensured for any person through karma can only be answered by Ishvara since only He is all knowing. No human can possibly answer how Ishvara ensures justice.

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Fruits of one actions only come from the Lord. Karma itself is insentient. The Brahma Sutras say (https://www.wisdomlib.org/hinduism/book/brahma-sutras) with commentary:

Chapter III, Section II, Adhikarana VIII

Adhikarana summary: Iswara the giver of the fruits of actions

Brahma-Sutra 3.2.38: Sanskrit text and English translation.

फलमतः, उपपत्तेः ॥ ३८ ॥

phalamataḥ, upapatteḥ || 38 ||

phalam—Fruits of actions; ataḥ—from Him; upapatteḥ—for that is reasonable.

38. From Him (the Lord) are the fruits of actions ; for that is reasonable.

Having described the nature of Brahman, the author proceeds now to discuss the view of the Mimamsakas, who say that Karma (work) and not Īswara gives the fruits of one’s actions. According to them(?) it is useless to set up an Iswara for this purpose, since Karma itself can give that result at a future time.

This Sutra refutes it and says that from Iswara alone come the fruits cf one’s work. Karma is insentient and short-lived, and cannot therefore be expected to bestow the fruits of actions at a future time according to one’s deserts. We do not see any insentient thing bestow fruits on those who worship it. Therefore it is only from the Lord, who is worshipped through actions, that their results proceed.

Brahma-Sutra 3.2.39: Sanskrit text and English translation.

श्रुतत्वाच्च ॥ ३९ ॥

śrutatvācca || 39 ||

śrutatvāt—Because the scripture so teaches; ca—and.

39. And because the scripture so teaches.

The scripture declares that the fruits of actions come from the Lord. “That great, birthless Self is the eater of food and the giver of wealth (the fruit of one’s work)” (Brih. 4. 4. 24).

Brahma-Sutra 3.2.40: Sanskrit text and English translation.

धर्मं जैमिनिः, अत एव ॥ ४० ॥

dharmaṃ jaiminiḥ, ata eva || 40 ||

dharmaṃ—Religious merits; jaiminiḥ—(sage) Jaimini; ata eva—for the same reasons.

40. Jaimini (thinks) for the same reasons (viz. scriptural authority and reasoning) that religious merit (is what brings about the fruits of actions).

The view of the previous Sutra is being criticized.

The scripture enjoins, “He who is desirous of the heavenly world is to sacrifice” (Tandya). Since every scriptural injunction has an object, it is reasonable to think that the sacrifice itself produces the fruit. But it may be objected that since the deed is destroyed, it cannot produce a result at a future time. This is met by the positing of an Apurva or extraordinary principle, which is produced by the Karma before it is destroyed, and through the intervention of which the result is produced in the distant future. Again, if the deed itself did not produce the result, it would be useless to perform it; and moreover it is not reasonable to imagine one cause (the Lord) for a great variety of effects.

Brahma-Sutra 3.2.41: Sanskrit text and English translation.

पूर्वं तु बादरायणः, हेतुव्यपदेशात् ॥ ४१ ॥

pūrvaṃ tu bādarāyaṇaḥ, hetuvyapadeśāt || 41 ||

pūrvam—The former (i.e. the Lord); tu—but; bādarāyaṇaḥ—Badarayana; hetu-vyapadeśāt—on account of His being declared to be the cause (of the actions even).

41. But Badarayana (thinks) the former (the Lord, as the bestower of the fruits of actions) on account of His being declared to be the cause (of the actions even).

‘But’ refutes the view of Sutra 40. Both Karma and Apurva are insentient, and as such incapable of producing results without the intervention of an intelligent principle. For such a phenomenon is not experienced in the world. No one gets anything by worshipping stocks and stones. So the fruits of actions come only from the Lord, and this is all the more established, as the Lord Himself causes people to act one way) or the other; and since the Jiva acts as directed by Him, He Himself is the bestower of the fruits of his actions according to his deserts. “He makes him whom He wishes to lead up from these worlds do a good deed” etc. (Kau. 3. 8); “Whichever divine form a devotee wishes to worship . . . and obtains from it the results he desires, as ordained by Me” (Gita 7. 21-22). Since the Lord has regard for the merit and demerit of the souls, the objection that a uniform cause is incapable of producing various effects does not stand.

In the last four topics the entity ‘That’ has been explained. Firstly, Brahman has been shown to be formless, self-effulgent, and without difference; secondly, by the denial of manifoldness in It it has been established that It is one without a second; and lastly, It has been proved to be the giver of the fruits of people’s actions in the relative world. Thus the two entities ‘thou’ and ‘That’ have been explained in these two sections.

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    Long block quote with very little summary of your own. Also, does not refute the central argument: Did the thief not commit a sin because it was due to houseowner's own karma? – sv. Dec 28 '19 at 17:26
  • @sv, the thief committed a sin. Just because the houseowner got what he deserved, it doesn't mean he got it through means accepted by Shastras. It's a chain where sins get transferred from victim to perpetrator, that only stops when the punishment is meted out by the King (or Bhagavan) as long as it is accepted by Shastras. – ram Mar 5 at 0:33
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Let's say Somu kills Kumar.

Did Kumar deserve it? Yes. Why? Shastras tell us Law of Karma decides your birth & death. So Kumar deserved to die exactly at that time in that manner.

So, can we let Somu go free? No. Why not? Because Somu committed a crime.

How can it be a crime if Kumar deserved it? Because Shastras tell us that murder is a crime.

But if murder is a crime, how will Kumar get the death he deserves according to Karma? Shastras give the right of execution only to Raja (king/government/judge/police).

So if King executes Kumar, isn't it also murder? No. Why not? Because Shastras says that King must uphold justice by executing criminals. If Kumar committed a murder in this birth that the King knows about, then the King will execute him. But if he committed a murder in his previous birth, then the King cannot execute him because King cannot see into past lives. But Bhagavan can. So Bhagavan will ensure that Kumar gets the death he deserves. Whether it be through another criminal, or an accident, only Bhagavan will decide. Humans CANNOT decide.

Somu is just a means through which Kumar gets his deserved punishment. There is no contradiction.

...
Kumar killed Pappu. (Pappu's punishment is over, Kumar committed a crime)
Somu killed Kumar. (Kumar's punishment is over, Somu committed a crime)
Binny killed Somu. (Somu's punishment is over, Binny committed a crime)
King killed Binny. (Binny's punishment is over, King did not commit crime)
-end of chain-

Bhagavan gives a criminal some chance/time to repent before punishment is ordered.
If Somu had used his buddhi/manas to control himself, then Kumar will have time to repent, and if he doesn't, will eventually be punished by King.
If Binny had controlled himself, then Somu will have time to repent, and if he doesn't, will eventually be punished by King.
But neither did. They interfered and disobeyed shastras, so they will also be punished.

In other words, if you follow shastras, you will not be punished.
You do not have the right to commit a crime and then say the victim deserved it.
If you say so, then police will punish you and say you deserved it.

Source - https://www.wisdomlib.org/hinduism/book/brahma-sutras

Brahma-Sutra 3.2.38: फलमतः, उपपत्तेः

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