Brahma Sutra 1.3.25 says that "beings above men" are also qualified to meditate on Brahman and acquire the knowledge of Brahman.
Ramanujacharya in his commentary mentions Devas.
Shankaracharya in his commentary also mentions Devas:
It is true that the sâstra entitles men, but, at the same time, there is no exclusive rule entitling men only to the knowledge of Brahman; the teacher, Bâdarâyana, rather thinks that the sâstra entitles those (classes of beings) also which are above men, viz. gods, and so on.
Are there any other celestial races that can meditate on Brahman or have the knowledge of Brahman?
Do the Puranas and Itihasas talk about Rakshasas, etc. meditating on Brahman or possessing the knowledge of Brahman?
This Brahma Sutra says "beings above men" are also qualified, but in what sense does "above men" here mean? Gods are obviously above men, but are there any other races "above men" in the sense used here?
Interestingly, the Manusmriti classifies beings as high, middle, low based on the guna constitution of the body:
This threefold Migratory State due to the qualities should be understood to be again of three kinds each—high, low and middling, in accordance with the peculiar character of the act and knowledge of each man.
Inanimate beings, worms, insects, fishes, snakes, tortoise, cattle and wild animals,—represent the lowest state due to the quality of ‘Tamas.’—(42)
Elephants, horses, despised Śūdras, Mlecchas, lions, tigers and boars—represent the middling state due to the quality of ‘Tamas.’—(43)
Cāraṇas, Suparṇas, hypocritical men, Rākṣasas, and Piśācas—represent the highest state among those partaking of the quality of ‘Tamas.’—(44)
Stick-fencers, wrestlers, actors, men subsisting by the use of weapons, those addicted to gambling and drinking,—represent the lowest state among those partaking of the quality of ‘Rajas.’—(45)
Kings, Kṣatriyas, priests of kings, and leading wranglers and warriors represent the middling state among those partaking of ‘Rajas.’—(46)
Gandharvas, Guhyakas, ‘Yakṣas,’ the attendants of the gods, and all the Apsaras, represent the high state among those partaking of ‘Rajas.’—(47)
Ascetics and hermits, Brāhmaṇas, celestial beings, lunar asterisms, and Daityas represent the first state partaking of ‘Sattva.’—(48)
Sacrificers, sages, gods, vedas, luminaries, years, Pitṛs and Sādhyas represent the second state partaking of ‘Sattva.’—(49)
Brahmā, creators of the universe, Dharma, the Great One, Unmanifest,—these the wise ones describe as representing the best state partaking of ‘Sattva.’—(50)
12.81 - With whatever disposition a man performs an act, the fruit thereof he reaps with a body of that same quality.
It is interesting to note that Daityas (Asuras) are categorized as sattvic and put next to Brahmanas.
I wrote a question about it here, and I think the reason why they are above men according to the Manusmriti and put alongside gods is because they're actually more an inversion of devas than they are demons. They are "false gods" or "fallen gods"; hence, "a"-sura and not sura (god). They are after all step-siblings to the Devas and have the same father, Kashyapa. So, since their father is the same, both Devas and Asuras have bodies constituted mainly of sattva guna. But despite having sattvic bodies, Asuras have a tamasic and evil mental predisposition.
Due to this, Asuras are eligible to study the Vedas, as evidenced by the story in the Prajapati Vidya, and also the fact that Vishnu as Buddha had to lure away the Asuras from the Vedas since they were acquiring powers from Vedic rites. Since they are eligible to study the Vedas and follow its injunctions, it means that they can also meditate on Brahman as enjoined by the Vedas.
Rakshasas and Pisachas on the other hand are put below men, especially Dvijas, and they have tamasic bodies.
I don't know where Nagas fall but since they inhabit the Patalas along with the Asuras they might have sattvic bodies too.
So if this hierarchy in the Manusmriti is what this Brahma Sutra is referring to, does this mean that Gandharvas, Apsaras, Siddhas, Asuras, etc. are qualified for meditation on Brahman but Rakshasas and Pisachas aren't?