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According to Hindu scripture, yajnas produce rain, and when yajnas aren't performed, it doesn't rain:

  1. From food arise all beings; from rain food is produced; from sacrifice comes rain; and sacrifice is achieved through activity. - Bhagavad Gita

The oblations offered in fire reach the sun, and from the sun comes rain (Manu, 3.76)

But we see that it rains in places where yajnas are not being performed or have never been performed (Mleccha countries). How does Hindu scripture explain this phenomena?

I have some ideas:

  • It can rain for other reasons like good karma of the people or some other punya or yajna.

  • Mleccha countries don't need to perform yajnas for it to rain.

  • Mleccha counties were once countries where Vedic people performed yajnas, and the fruit of those yajnas is still being rewarded as rain, but has stopped in some places like the middle east deserts.

  • Non-Vedic rituals such as the native American "Rain Dance" has the power to produce rains. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainmaking_(ritual)

  • There are other non-Vedic deities or supernatural beings that give rain.

These are my speculations, but what does Hindu scripture say?

  • Incidentally, Antarctica, which is uninhabited (save for camps established for scientific research, a modern day development) also receives summer rain in its coastal parts! We may have to allow for rainfall being the natural order of things not requiring propitiation of supernatural beings – Vidyut Feb 24 at 20:11
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Those verses are not talking about specific Yagnas which have rain as a fruit. They are talking about the general function that Yagnas serve in providing rain to the Universe. Here is what Medhatithi’s Manubhashya says

‘Into the fire being thrown’—by the sacrificer.

‘Oblation’—cooked rice, cakes and such other things, when thrown into the fire, are called ‘oblation.’

‘Reaches the sun’—in an invisible form. The sun absorbs the essence of all things; hence the essence of the oblation is described as reaching the sun. This essence, evolving in the sun’s rays, becomes in time developed into rain. From that proceeds ‘food’—in the shape of Vrīhi and other grains. From that proceed ‘creatures,’—all living beings.

Thus, by throwing an oblation into the fire, the sacrificer continues to help on the world-process.

This is in line with the Vishnu Purana statement “Havisham Parinamo’yam Yat Etad Akhilam Jagat” - the whole world is a transformation of the Yagna offering.

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