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Bhūmi, Bhudevi represents Mother Earth in Hinduism.

As far as I know, she had been personified as such in the Varaha Purana .

Any earlier references?

2 Answers 2

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The Atharva Veda (AV) 12.1 Sukta is entirely dedicated to the Deity Earth, where she is praised as a Divine Being and not as an inanimate object. Various prayers are offered to her for granting protection and obtaining many other things in return. There are many Mantras that one can cite here but I am quoting few of them:

vishvasvam mAtaram oshadhinAm (1)
dhruvAm bhumim prithivim dharmanA dhritAm (2)
shivAm syonAm (3)
anu charema vishvahA (4)

O Mother of all growths (1), this firm Earth is upheld by Eternal Law (dharma) (2). May she be beneficient and gracious to us (3), as we tread on her forever (4).

AV 12.1.17


AV 12.1.27 invokes the Earth:

We excellently invoke the all-supporting Earth, on which trees, lords of forests, stand firm for ever.


AV 12.1.38 states how the Earth is worshipped using Vedic mantras:

Earth is worshipped with Rik and Saman hymns. The sacred seat, altar and vessels are made in it. The priests versed in Yajus perform yajna, (release) the Soma-delight to be drunk by Indra.


There is also the following mantra, which is chanted after someone has dug the earth for the sake of some construction. This is like asking for forgiveness from the Goddess Earth because we may have injured her vital parts while doing the works of digging.

yat te bhume vikhanAmi (1)
kshipram tadapi rohatu (2)
ma te marma vimrigvari (3)
mA te hridayam arpipam (4)

Whatever I dig from thee, Earth (1), may that have quick growth again (2). O purifier, may we not injure thy vital parts (3), or injure thy heart (4).

AV 12.1.35


So, the Earth is a Devi from the Vedic times.

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  • the dictionary has hundreds of synonyms for "earth" - are words like vasudha,prithvi also used to denote a Devi or are they just "the earth"? @rickross
    – S K
    Commented Mar 5, 2020 at 11:03
  • I did not exactly understand what ur question is but in the mantras given in the answer, the words used are Bhumi, Prithivi, which are translated as Earth @SK
    – Rickross
    Commented Mar 5, 2020 at 11:36
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Rigveda the oldest Hindu scripture define it as mother earth and has various hymns for her worship.

  • Rigveda 1:CLIX

2 With invocations, on the gracious Father's(heaven) mind, and on the Mother's(Earth) great inherent power I muse. Prolific Parents, they have made the world of life, and for their brood all round wide immortality. 3 These Sons of yours well skilled in work, of wondrous power, brought forth to life the two great mother earth first of all.To keep the truth of all that stands and all that moves, ye guard the station of your Son who knows no guile.

  • Rigveda 1:CLX
  1. Widely-capacious Pair, mighty, that never fail, the Father and the Mother(earth) keep all creatures safe: The two world-halves, the spirited, the beautiful, because the Father hath clothed them in goodly forms.

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