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The belief among majority of Hindus is that Abhimanyu had learned about Chakravyuha while he was still in womb. A good number of expectant parents in the previous and current generations consider Abhimanyu's example as reason to read out aloud when pregnant. However as evident from the answers here, Abhimanyu's story has no backing in scriptures.

So question is whether there are any incidents in scriptures which indicate that a foetus can learn. Or for that matter any mention of directives to parents along these lines.

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Yes, scriptures mention that a child in womb can learn and even speak. One such story is mentioned in Mahabharata, Book 3: Vana Parva: Tirtha-yatra Parva: SECTION CXXXII.

According to above story, Ashtavakra was the son of Kahoda and Sujata (daughter of Uddalaka). Ashtavakra spoke to his father while in fetal state.

"Lomasa said, The sage Uddalaka had a disciple named Kahoda of subdued passions, and entirely devoted to the service of his preceptor and who had continued his studies long. The Brahmana had served his tutor long, and his preceptor, recognising his service, gave him his own daughter, Sujata, in marriage, as well as a mastery over the Shastras. And she became with child, radiant as fire. And the embryo addressed his father while employed in reading, 'O father, thou hast been reading the whole night, but (of all that) thy reading doth not seem to me correct. Even in my fetal state I have, by thy favour, become versed in the Shastras and the Vedas with their several branches. I say, O father, that what proceeds from thy mouth, is not correct.' Thus insulted in the presence of his disciples, the great sage in anger cursed his child in the womb, saying, 'Because thou speakest thus even while in the womb, therefore thou shalt be crooked in eight parts of the body.' The child was accordingly born crooked, and the great sage was ever after known by the name of Ashtavakra.

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While I have already an accepted answer, I'd like to share another incident I came across and that too from Mahabharata. Here too the foetus gets cursed for speaking out of turn. From Mahabharata's Sambhava Parva Section CIV

There was in olden days a wise Rishi of the name of Utathya. He had a wife of the name Mamata whom he dearly loved. One day Utathya's younger brother Vrihaspati, the priest of the celestials, endued with great energy, approached Mamata. The latter, however, told her husband's younger brother--that foremost of eloquent men--that she had conceived from her connection with his elder brother and that, therefore, he should not then seek for the consummation of his wishes. She continued, 'O illustrious Vrihaspati, the child that I have conceived hath studied in his mother's womb the Vedas with the six Angas

How can then this womb of mine afford room for two children at a time? Therefore, it behoveth thee not to seek for the consummation of thy desire at such a time. Thus addressed by her, Vrihaspati, though possessed of great wisdom, succeeded not in suppressing his desire.How can then this womb of mine afford room for two children at a time? Therefore, it behoveth thee not to seek for the consummation of thy desire at such a time. Thus addressed by her, Vrihaspati, though possessed of great wisdom, succeeded not in suppressing his desire.

And the illustrious Vrihaspati, beholding this, became indignant, and reproached Utathya's child and cursed him, saying, 'Because thou hast spoken to me in the way thou hast at a time of pleasure that is sought after by all creatures perpetual darkness shall overtake thee.' And from this curse of the illustrious Vrishaspati Utathya's child who was equal unto Vrihaspati in energy, was born blind and came to be called Dirghatamas (enveloped in perpetual darkness).

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