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(After reading Raja Yoga by Swami Vivekananda log ago) I have recently started reading Vyasa Bhashya on Yogasutras of Patanjali. I have noticed that Vyasa is many-times quoting some texts in his commentary on Yogasutras.

For example Here is a commentary on Sutra 1.4: (citing Sanskrit commentary from Yoga-vaiśāradī site)

vṛttisārupyamitaratra ॥ 4 ॥

vyutthāne yāścittavṛttayastadaviśiṣṭavṛttiḥ puruṣaḥ। tathā ca sūtram – “ekameva darśanaṁ khyātireva darśanam” iti । cittamayaskāntamaṇikalpaṁ saṁnidhimātropakāri dṛśyatvena svaṁ bhavati puruṣasya svāminaḥ। tasmāccittavṛttibodhe puruṣasyānādiḥ saṁbandho hetuḥ ॥ 4 ॥

[English translation]: On account of objects being presented to it, identifi- cation with modifications takes place elsewhere. The conscious principle (purusa) is not unaffected by whatever may be the modifications of the mind in the state of outgoing activity. And so in the aphorism "Knowledge is but one; discrimination alone is knowledge". The mind is like a magnet energized by nearness alone. Being seen it becomes the possession of its lord, the purusa. Therefore the reason for knowing the modifications of the mind is the eternal relation of the purusa.

Here as we can see, Vyasa quoted one sutra: "ekameva darśanaṁ khyātireva darśanam" but not mentioned where does it come from. Let's see second example which I found at the end of Sutra 1.25:

.....tathā coktam – ādividvānnirmāṇacittamadhiṣṭhāya kāruṇyādbhagavānparamarṣirāsuraye jijñāsamānāya tatraṁ provāceti ॥

.....And so it has been said: — ‘The first Wise Being, the revered Great Sage, informed a self-made mental vehicle out of compassion, and gave the teaching to Asuri who wished to know.

Here we can notice "It has been said". Similarly I found he many-times quoted some Sutras in his Bhashya on Yogasutras writing followed by writing something like "it has been said" (e.g on Sutras 2.5, 2.13, 2.15 etc. and so on) but no mention from where he is quoting the text.

So, I want to know what the source text is, from where Vyasa is quoting sutras (or sayings) in his commentary on Yogasutras of Patanjali.

  • Is this the Veda-Vyasa or another sage with the name of Vyasa? – user1952500 Mar 20 at 4:50
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    @user1952500 There is dispute on this issue. According to some scholar, it is same Vedavyasa who wrote Mahabharata but according to other scholars the language and dating of scripture indicates that this is not Vedavyasa but would be different Vyasa – Pandya Mar 20 at 4:53
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He is quoting sayings of Pañcaśikhā according to Vācaspati Miśra​'s sub commentary (popularly known as Tattva Vaiśāradī) on Vyāsa​'s commentary on Yogasutras of Patanjali.

Quoting Sanskrit text of Tattva Vaiśāradī from Yoga-vaiśāradī site and English translation from Patanjali's Yoga Sutraswith The Commentary Of Vyasa And The Gloss Of Vachaspati Misra Rama Prasad Translation:

  • On Sutra 1.4

    ....etacca matāntare'pi siddhamityāha – tathā ceti । pañcaśikhācāryasya sūtram “ekameva darśanaṁ khyātireva darśanam” iti । ....

    [English Translation:] ....The Commentator now says that this is recognized by another school also. “ So is the aphorism, &c.” The aphorism "knowledge is but one ; discrimination alone is knowledge" is an aphorism of the Acharya Panchashikha....

  • On Sutra 1.25:

    ....tathā coktaṁ pañcaśikhācāryeṇa – ādividvānkapila iti । ādividvāniti pañcaśikhācāryavacanamādimuktasvasaṁtānādiguruviṣayaṁ na tvanādimuktaparamaguruviṣayam । ādimukteṣu kadācinmukteṣu vidvatsu kapilo'smākamādividvānmuktaḥ sa eva ca gururiti ।.....

    ....This theory that the compassionate Lord teaches knowledge and virtue is also common to the teaching of Kapila So has it been said by Pañcaśikha. "The first wise man, &c." This is a quotation from Pafichasikhdcharya. The first wise man means the teacher who was the first emancipated being of his school. It does not mean the Highest Teacher who is ever free. The reference is to Kapila who was the founder of the school, and who was the first of those emancipated ones who had gone before among the followers of tho school.....

➠➤ So, the source text behind these quotes by Vyāsa is the Sutras of Pañcaśikhācārya and as I've discussed in this question it is said that Pachashikacharya had wrote a text called "Shasti Tantra" (sixty topics) but it's now lost. So, these citations would be from this lost text Shasti Tantra. This gets confirmed by Vācaspatimiśra​'s sub commentary on Sutra 4.13. Where Vyāsa specifically talked about Shastra and the sub commentary clarifies that it means no other than Shasti Tantra!


Yoga Sutra (Patanjali): te vyaktasūkṣmā guṇātmānaḥ ॥ 13 ॥

Commentary (Vyāsa): te khalvamī tryadhvāno dharmā vartamānā vyaktātmāno'tītānāgatāḥ sūkṣmātmānaḥ ṣaḍviśeṣarūpāḥ। sarvamidaṁ guṇānāṁ saṁniveśaviśeṣamātramiti paramārthato guṇātmānaḥ। tathā ca śāstrānuśāsanam

guṇānāṁ paramaṁ rūpaṁ na dṛṣṭipathamṛcchati।
yattu dṛṣṭipathaṁ prāptaṁ tanmāyeva sutucchakam ॥ iti ॥ 13 ॥

[English Translation for Commentary] They, i.e., these characteristics which are possessed of the three paths of being, are of the nature of the manifested, when they exist in the present, and are of the nature of the subtle when they passed into the past or are yet unmanifested. They are the six unspecialized appear- ances. All this is but the specific arrangement of the qualities.’ In truth, therefore, they are of the nature of the ‘ qualities.’So teaches the Sastra : — "The real appearance of the qualities does not come within the line of vision. That, however, which comes within the line, is but paltry delusion."

Sub commentary (Vācaspati Miśra​): .....vyaktānāṁ pṛthivyādīnāmekādaśendriyāṇāṁ ca vartamānānāmatītānāgatatvaṁ ṣaḍviśeṣā yathāyogaṁ bhavanti । saṁprati viśvasya nityānityarūpe vibhajannityarūpamāha - sarvamidamiti । dṛśyamānaṁ saṁniveśaḥ saṁsthānabhedavānpariṇāma ityarthaḥ । atraiva ṣaṣṭitantraśāstrasyānuśiṣṭiḥ । māyeva na tu māyā । sutucchakaṁ vināśi । yathā hi māyā'hrāyaivānyathā bhavati evaṁ vikārā apyāvirbhāvatirobhāvadharmāṇaḥ pratikṣaṇamanyathā । prakṛtirnityatayā māyāvidharmiṇī paramārtheti ॥ 13 ॥

[English Translation for sub commentary] Now describes the eternal appearance of the universe, with the object of dividing the appearances thereof into the eternal and the non-eternal : All this is but the special appearance of the ‘ qualities,’ The meaning is that evolutionary changes which are visible, consist of different arrangements and forms. On this subject is the teaching of the Sastra possessed of sixty Tantras.

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