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I find it intriguing that in English, nature is used in two interesting ways; that is Nature as in the world around around and all living things; and human nature, which is that conmmon to humanity; ie consciousness expressed as man. One might posit this as a microcosm/macrocosm distinction.

Are there similar terms in Hindu or Sanskrit that align with this?

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Yes, the same is also the case in Sanskrit and the term is Prakruti. It is used both as human nature and the nature around us, that is the material nature of God [BG - 13.19]. It is also same as maya:

māyāṃ tu prakṛtiṃ vidyānmāyinaṃ tu maheśvaraṃ [Sve. Up. - 4.10]
- Know that maya is Prakruti and the lord of maya is God

In scriptures, the human nature are classified under three categories as satva (goodness), rajas(passion) and tamas (ignorance). And these three human natures origin from the material nature which you can consider as the macrocosm:

sattvaṃ rajastama iti prakṛterguṇāstair [SB – 1.2.23]
-satva, rajas, tama are the three qualities of material nature.

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