As I discuss in this question, one of the early movements that was important in the development of Vaishnavism was the ancient Pancharatra movement, whose sacred texts consisted of detailed procedures to worship the sage Narayana, an ancient incarnation of Vishnu who was the son of Yama god of death and twin brother of the sage Nara. Among the oldest Pancharatra texts are the Satvata Samhita, Paushkara Samhita, and Jayakhya Samhita. But there's another Pancharatra text even older than those, and it is found within the Shanti Parva of the Mahabharata! It's called the Narayaniya, and it's an 18-chapter religious dialogue between Yudishthira and Bhishma on the importance of worshipping Narayana/Vishnu, similar to the Bhagavad Gita, another 18-chapter religious discourse between Krishna and Arjuna found in the Bhishma Parva of the Mahabharata.

In any case, this chapter of the Narayaniya describes a dispute that a bunch of sages once had with the gods, over the meaning of the word "Aja". One of the Yagnas (fire-rituals) described in the Vedas is called the Ajamedha Yagna, in which you're supposed to sacrifice "Ajas". But the Sanskrit word "Aja" can either mean goat or vegetable seed, so there was an argument about which one you had to sacrifice; the gods said it meant goats and the sages said it meant vegetable seeds. The king Uparichara Vasu came by and said that the gods were right, so the sages cursed him for incorrectly siding with the gods.

The gods, once on a time, addressing many foremost of Brahmanas, said unto them that sacrifices should be performed by offering up Ajas as victims. By the word Aja should be understood the goat and no other animal.' The Rishis said, 'The Vedic Sruti declares that in sacrifices the offerings should consist of (vegetable) seeds. Seeds are called Ajas. It behoveth you not to slay goats. Ye deities, that cannot be the religion of good and righteous people in which slaughter of animals is laid down. This, again, is the Krita age. How can animals be slaughtered in this epoch of righteousness?' ... Learning what the opinion was that was entertained by the deities, Vasu, moved by partiality for them, said that sacrifices should be performed with animals. At this answer, all the Rishis, endued with the splendour of the Sun, became very angry. Addressing Vasu who was seated on his car and who had (wrongly) taken up the side of the deities, they said unto him,--Since thou hast (wrongly) taken up the side of the deities, do thou fall down from heaven.

The clear implication from the text is that the sages were right after all, and that Ajas does indeed refer to vegetable seeds.

But my question is about the sages' statement that "[t]he Vedic Sruti declares that in sacrifices the offerings should consist of (vegetable) seeds." Where in the Vedas is the statement that the offerings should be vegetable seeds rather than goats? And first of all, where in the Vedas is the description of Ajamedha Yagna itself? That might be the best place to look.

  • 1
    Wow, nice question, and in-depth knowledge Ajas.
    – Mr. K
    Commented Dec 27, 2014 at 13:25
  • @Mr.K Thanks! I asked one more question related to this Ajas topic if you're interested: hinduism.stackexchange.com/q/4062/36 I've also asked a few other questions related to the Pancharatra texts: hinduism.stackexchange.com/questions/tagged/pancharatra Commented Dec 28, 2014 at 4:35
  • thanks, they seem good, I read them, why don't you add a wiki related to that, you have put up a lot of knowledge in these questions.
    – Mr. K
    Commented Jan 5, 2015 at 11:10
  • @Keshav Srinivasan: There is confirmation in Vayupurana about the use of seeds for yagas than goat. It says that those seeds must be older than 3 years and ensure that not suitable for the fields anymore. You can find it in Vayupurana 57.100.101. Also you may get some info in Mahabharatha Santhiparva 3.3.7. One more source to confirm the same is PanchaThanthra 23rd Sloka(translation). I don't know about the online sources for them, so please do your research with these info which will be helpful in supporting this.
    – user11
    Commented Mar 14, 2015 at 16:53
  • Besides female goat, another interpretation of Aja is 'unborn' - which can be interpreted as 'seed' as a seed is unborn... Commented Jun 21, 2015 at 15:05

3 Answers 3


1)Where in the Vedas is the statement that the offerings should be vegetable rather than goats?

Vedas clearly prohibit the use of anything like meat or anything in yajnas.

Mahabharata ,Shantiparva 265:9:-“Liquors, fish, mead, meat- all these have been inserted into Yajna by the wicked people. Vedas have not prescribed their use in Yajnas”.

Atharvaved 7:5:5:- All those are foolish who use cow, dog or any other animal in yajnas.

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Satapatha Brahmana says to cast off (remove) that fire from yajna which has consumed raw flesh. So this makes the thing clear that flesh should not be offered in fire (Yajna).

Shatpath Brahman 1:2:1:4:-With it he shifts the coals to the fore-part 2 (of the khara or hearth-mound), with the text (Vâg. S. I, 17 b):'O fire! cast off the fire that eateth raw flesh! drive away the corpse-eating one!' For the raw flesh-eating (fire) is the one with which men cook what they eat; and the corpse-eating one is that on which they burn (the dead) man: these two he thereby expels from it (the Gârhapatya).

Now the question is that either vegetables or seeds can be sacrificed or not. So it depends on you. Because Hinduism say that anything you eat instead of meat can be sacrificed to god.

Atharvaved 6:140:2:-Let’s our teeth eat rice, beans, sesame but not anything which is capable of being father & mother.

So if Vedas allow us to eat vegetables, we can sacrifice them and even there seeds.

व्रीहयश्च मे यवाश्च मे माषाश्च मे तिलाश्च मे मुद्राश्च मे खल्वाश्च मे प्रियङ्गवश्च मे णवश्च मे श्यामाकाश्च मे नीवाराश्च मे गोधूमाश्च मे मसूराश्च मे यज्ञेन कल्पन्ताम् ॥१२॥

Yajurveda 18:12. May my rice-plants and my barley, and my beans and my sesamum, and my kidney-beans and my vetches, and my millet and my Panicum Milliaceum, and my Panicum Frumentaceum and my wild rice, and my wheat and my lentils prosper by sacrifice.

Yajña, sacrifice, is an act by which we surrender something for the sake of the gods. Such an act must rest on a sacred authority (āgama), and serve for man's salvation (śreyoऽrtha). The nature of the gift is of less importance. *It may be puroḍāśa, cake; karu, pulse; sāṃnāyya, mixed milk; paśu, an animal; soma, the juice of the Soma-plant, &c.; nay, the smallest offerings of butter, flour, and milk" may serve for the purpose of a sacrifice.Yajña, yāga, yajana, and iṣṭi are considered as synonymes.


2) And first of all, where in the Vedas is the description of Ajamedha Yagna itself?

"Medha" has two meanings- killing and increasing. Ajamedha yajna means yajna for increasing goats.


vedas do mention sacrificing seeds (rice) which represent animal body parts in aitreya brahmaNa - book 2-chapter 1 & shatapatha brahmaNa - as offering for paSubandha :

aitreya brahmaNa - book 2-chapter 1:

The sacrificial part (medha) remained for longest time in goat. thence is the goat among all these animals pre-eminently fit The gods killed the goat but the part fit for being sacrificed went out of it and entered the earth After sacrificial part had entered the earth, the gods surrounded it; it then turned into rice. The puroDaaSa is the animal which is killed. The chaff and straw of the rice of which it consists are the hairs of the animal, its husks the skin, its smallest particles the blood, all the fine particles to which the rice is ground represents the flesh and whatever other substantial part is in the rice are the bones

shatpatha brahmaNa -

It entered into the goat. They offered up the goat. When it was offered up, the sacrificial essence went out of it.


It entered into this earth. They searched for it, by digging. They found it (in the shape of) those two (substances), the rice and barley: therefore even now they obtain those two by digging; and as much efficacy as all those sacrificed animal victims would have for him, so much efficacy has this oblation (of rice &c.) for him who knows this. And thus there is in this oblation also that completeness which they call 'the fivefold animal sacrifice.'


When it (the rice-cake) still consists of rice-meal, it is the hair. When he pours water on it, it becomes skin. When he mixes it, it becomes flesh: for then it becomes consistent; and consistent also is the flesh. When it is baked, it becomes bone: for then it becomes somewhat hard; and hard is the bone. And when he is about to take it off (the fire) and sprinkles it with butter, he changes it into marrow. This is the completeness which they call 'the fivefold animal sacrifice.'

shanti parva CCLXIII also mentions paSubandha with rice :

They do not adore Brahma in costly sacrifices. They walk along the path of the righteous. The (animal) Sacrifices they perform are performed without injury to any creature. These men know trees and herbs and fruits and roots as the only sacrificial offerings.

As regards the faithful, however, only one thing, viz., the cow, is fit for upholding all sacrifices by means of full libations of clarified butter, milk, and curds, the hair at end of her tail, her horns, and her hoofs.

To the exclusion of all animals (which are certainly unclean as offering in sacrifices), the rice-ball is a worthy offering in sacrifices.


The question is

  • The Vedic Sruti declares that in sacrifices the offerings should consist of (vegetable) seeds." Where in the Vedas is the statement that the offerings should be vegetable seeds rather than goats?

  • And first of all, where in the Vedas is the description of Ajamedha Yagna itself?

Rig Veda III.52.7 says as follows:

The groats have we prepared for thee with Pūṣan, corn for thee, Lord of Bay Steeds, with thy horses. Eat thou the meal-cake, banded with the Maruts, wise Hero, Vṛtra-slayer, drink the Soma.

Rig Veda I.162.4 says

yad dhaviṣyaṃ ṛtuśo devayānaṃ trirmānuṣāḥ paryaśvaṃ nayanti | atrā pūṣṇaḥ prathamo bhāgha eti yajñaṃ devebhyaḥ prativedayann***ajaḥ*** ||

When thrice the men lead round the Steed, in order, who goeth to the Gods as meet oblation, The goat precedeth him, the share of Pūṣan, and to the Gods the sacrifice announceth.

As far as I understood, Rig Vedic hymns are cryptic and having multi layered meanings. The Rig Vedic mantras can be understood in an esoteric sense only. They give wrong meaning if viewed in physical sense.

For example the word cow or Go hidden in the darkness of a cave, used in esoteric sense, which indicates the dormant stage of SOUL wrapped in ignorance.

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