What is modern Hinduism's perspectives on polygamy (by modern, say within the last 35 years)?
Is the practice of polygamy consistent with any principles in the Vedas?
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There is no direct or indirect reference of any sort on polygamy in Hindu scriptures (Manu smriti). Vedas primarily deal with God & Ultimate Truth. Marriage & society practises are defined by & in Manu Smriti, which forms basis of a society & its laws consistent with other hindu scriptures.
A king is "permitted" three wifes - first for interests of his kingdom, second for his parents, third of his choice.
Lord Krishna's marriage to devi rukmini is of his own choice, while with Satyabhama was that for kingdom and with Jambava was as a token of his long standing disciple Jambavanth from Ramayana era.
Hinduism focusses on attaining the ultimate truth, which is also termed as moksha. Rest all are all rules, practises, leading to that path in which practises in a social society are again based on certain rules & laws of mother nature
Hindusim is replete with single minded devotion - "Sati" (Chastity) and to even think of polygamy in the context of hinduism is sheer ignorance and is a "paap".
There is discussion of polygamy by Bhishma in Mahabharata Anusasana Parva Section XLVII. Bhishma recommends polygamy for Hindus. That does not mean that Hindus must accept polygamy. Mahabharata itself does not encourage following obsolete practices:
One should practice what one considers to be one’s duty, guided by reasons, instead of blindly following the practices of the world.
Mahabharata Santi Parva Section CCLXII
Polygamy has been banned for 60 years.