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In VR balakand-26-11

"Then Dasharatha on entering palace chambers spoke this to queen Kausalya, "Receive this dessert to beget your son."".

In my opinion which hints about Dashratha being biological father.

However the commentary of govindaraja says:

This divine dessert is meant for the 'eligible' queens, as informed the Ritual Being and also in order to maintain the divinity of Ram's birth. In the context of seed and field, the field has no equal importance to the seed biija-kShetra nyaaya . Hence the seed is divine in the form of dessert and fields are therefore shall 'be eligible' for the seedling. As such the First Queen and Empress Kausalya is being addressed firstly, and given firstly.

Which hints something different.

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    If we omit Sargas 15 to 17 of Bala kanda of Ramayana, and read, we can understand that Sri Rama was the biological son of Dasaratha – Srimannarayana K V Jul 21 at 13:42
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    I think that you may want to show Rama as biological son of Dasharatha. But remember that great divine characters want to skip as many steps as possible to take birth as human form. – hanugm Jul 21 at 14:03
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    @Panibotal: The article referred to in the link (velivada.com/2019/04/13/…) is a wild imagination. Ramayana as composed by Sage Valmiki did not include the incarnation of Vishnu concept, as narrated in Sargas 15 to 17 as a part of Putrakamesthi Yagna. It is a later day addition. The original version says Dasaratha got children after completion of 1 year after performing Aswamedha Yagna, So the story is clear. Sri Rama was the biological son of Dasaratha – Srimannarayana K V Jul 21 at 16:45
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    And Valmiki Ramayana is not the only scripture, others scriptures also say the same fact. So there is no need to prove that Rama is the biological son of Dasharatha. As I told, divine persons across scriptures take human forms due to necessity only and they are in fact unwilling to take human form. So they bypass some necessary steps also. You can see that many goddesses didn't even born from the womb of the mother and took birth directly. Some gods took birth directly from the mother without any restriction of nine months. – hanugm Jul 21 at 17:42
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    The website you refer is against Hinduism. It interprets most of the scriptures with the wrong light... Coming to the argument by BRA, it is completely baseless and there is no need to hide in scriptures even if it happens because it is also allowed as per Niyoga dharma. en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niyoga. it (Niyoga) was mentioned by many scriptures. Even If we take it as true with Rama, there is no adharma and hence there is no need to hide. You can read about births of important divine persons in Mahabharata. – hanugm Jul 21 at 20:26
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No.

Rama is not a biological son of Dasharatha. Rama did not born from Kausalya due to the physical union with Dasharatha.

The slokha you quoted is

Then Dasharatha on entering palace chambers spoke this to queen Kausalya, "Receive this dessert to beget your son."

[1-16-26]

It says that Dasharatha offered dessert that was obtained after performing Vedic ritual called putrakaamesti. Kausalya obtains progeny due to that dessert only.

In addition to the Valmiki Ramayana, I list some excerpts from other scriptures that also mentions that the Rama took birth only after the consumption of dessert by Kausalya.

Narada says the fact (birth of Rama due to dessert) to Agni in conversation about the manifestation of Vishnu as Rama in Agni Purana

Hari (Visnu) manifested himself in the four (forms) for the sake of the annihilation of Ravana and others. Rama was born from Dasaratha to KauSalya, Bharata to Kaikeyi and Laksmana and Satrughnato Sumitra simultaneously from partaking of the sweet gruel obtained from (the performance) of the sacrifice of the father.

[4-7, Chapter 5: Manifestation of Visnu as Rama, Agni Purana]

Tulsidas also mentions the same fact

One day the king was sad at heart that he had no son. He hastened to his preceptorís residence and, falling at his feet, made many entreaties. He told the Guru all his joys and sorrows; the sage Vasista comforted him in many ways and said, "Take heart and wait; you will have four sons, who will be known throughout the three worlds and will rid the devotees of their fears". Then Vasista invited the sage Sringi and had a noble sacrifice performed by him for the birth of a son to the king. When the sage devoutly offered oblations into the sacred fire, the fire-god appeared with an offering of rice boiled with milk in his hand. Said the fire-god, "Whatever Vasista has contemplated for you, that object is fully accomplished. Take this oblation, O king, and divide it in such proportions as you think fit".

[1-4, 188, Bala-Kanda, Tulsidas Ramcharitmanas]

Thus scriptures clearly says that the queens obtained pregnancy from eating the dessert.

So, Yagna Purusha's handing over of golden vessel of divine dessert to Dasharatha appears in 16th Sarga of Bala Kanda is a fact and has been mentioned across scriptures.

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    How can you say that kaushalaya and other queens obtained progeny only due to that dessert? I quoted that as a "bhav-arth". – Panibotal Jul 21 at 12:09
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    @Panibotal Because Vishnu entered into Kausalya from thr dessert only, not via Dasharatha according to Valmiki Ramayana. – hanugm Jul 21 at 12:52
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    can we say that vishnu entered into the child of dashrath-kaushalya through that dessert? – Panibotal Jul 21 at 13:18
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    @Panibotal We can see no statement implying that. Vishnu didn't enter Dasharatha and then Kausalya (as in case of normal Jivas), – hanugm Jul 21 at 13:28
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King Dasharatha decides to perform an elaborate Vedic ritual, called Aswamedha yajna, Horse Ritual, to beget children. He being a considerate king in taking conscience of the courtiers, he discusses this aspect with the Vedic scholars and ministers of his court, beforehand.

मम लालस्य मानस्य सुतार्थम् नास्ति वै सुखम् | तदर्थम् हयमेधेन यक्ष्ह्यामि इति मतिर् मम ||

"My mind is tumultuous without quietude for I have no sons... for that reason, I wish perform Aswametha, Vedic Horse Ritual... this is my thinking." (Bala Kanda 8th Sarga 8th Sloka)

तत् अहम् यष्टुम् इच्छमि शास्त्र दृष्टेन कर्मणा | कथम् प्राप्स्यामि अहम् कामम् बुद्धिः अत्र विचिन्त्यताम् ||

"Therefore, I contemplate to perform that ritual as enshrined in the scriptures and as a rite-oriented one as well... let this contemplation of mine be well thought of... and as to how my desire to beget sons will be fulfilled.." (Bala Kanda 8th Sarga 9th Sloka)

Everybody including Sage Vasistha agrees for this. On the advice of his minister Sumantra, Dasharatha proceeds to Anga kingdom and brings Sage Rishyasringa and his wife Shanta to his capital Ayodhya.

King Dasharatha requests the Sages to conduct the Vedic ritual for which the sages indent paraphernalia, which the ministers were ordered to supply forthwith.

So only Aswametha was thought of for begetting children by King Dasaradha and approved by everybody. And, the Aswamedha Yagna was completed by King Dasaratha.

The sloka 57 in Sarga 14 of Bala Kanda says like this:

Then that king(Dasaratha) is gladdened at heart for the successful achievement of the completion of that excellent Aswametha ritual that removes sin and that leads to heaven as well, and that which cannot be undertaken by many of the best kings.

It was only after completing the Aswametha, mention was made about Putrakamesti in the penultimate slokas of 14th Sarga of Bala Kanda.

The question is as to why the concept of Putrakamesti ritual was brought in when the completion of Aswametha ritual removes sin and children can be begotten.?


If we go through the subsequent Sargas, i.e., 15-17, we can understand that it was in these Sargas that

(i) the Devatas pray Lord Brahma and Lord Vishnu for elimination of Ravana, (ii) Lord Vishnu consents for taking an incarnation as Sri Rama, the son of King Dasaratha, (iii) After completion of Putrakamesti, a divine person appears and gives god-given golden vessel full with divine food for consumption by eligible wives of King Dasarath for begetting sons, (iv) King Dasaratha enters his Palace and gives the Divine food to Kousalya, Sumitra and Kikeyi, (v) Lord Brahma orders all Devatas to cause birth of vanaras out of their Energies to assist Sri Rama in elimination of Ravana.

However, in the Slokas 1 & 2 of Sarga 18 of Bala Kanda, the Sage Valmiki describes like this:

निर्वृत्ते तु क्रतौ तस्मिन् हयमेधे महात्मनः | प्रति गृह्य अमरा भागान् प्रतिजग्मुः यथा आगतम् ||

On the competition of the horse ritual of high-souled Dasharatha, the gods having received their portion of sacrificial oblation returned to their abodes as they have come.

समाप्त दीक्षा नियमः पत्नी गण समन्वितः | प्रविवेश पुरीम् राजा स भृत्य बल वाहनः ||

The king completing his consecratory vows held for horse ritual, entered Ayodhya city along with the company of his queens, servants, guards and vehicles.

Here, the Sage did not mention about Putrakamesti but mentions only about completion of Aswametha Yagna, horse ritual. The inference is that only the Aswamedha Yagna was contemplated, took up and completed successfully.

It was because as per the prevalent customs, performing of Aswamedha Yagna will result in begetting children.

Yagna Purusha's handing over of golden vessel of divine dessert to Dasharatha appears in 16th Sarga of Bala Kanda. It is an interpolated story.


It was mentioned in the 8th to 11th slokas of 18th Sarga of Bala Kanda, as follows:

On completion of the ritual, six seasons have passed by; then in the twelfth month, i.e., in chaitra-mAsa, and on the ninth day of that chaitra month [April-May], when it is punarvasunakShatrayukta-navamI tithi, i.e., when the ruling star of that ninth day is punarvasu, for which Aditi is the presiding deity; and when five of the nine planets sUrya, kuja, guru, shukra, shani are in ucChasthAna-s, namely, when those planets are in ascension in their respective houses - meSha, makara, karkaTa, mIna, tula - rAshI-s; and when chandrayukta- guru, karkaTalagne - Jupiter in conjuction with Moon is ascendant in Cancer, and when day is advancing, Queen Kausalya gave birth to a son with all the divine attributes like lotus-red eyes, lengthy arms, roseate lips, voice like drumbeat, and who took birth to delight the Ikshwaku dynasty and adored by all the worlds, and who is the greatly blessed epitome of Vishnu, namely Rama.


So after completion of 12 months from completing the Horse ritual, Sri Rama was born.

Sri Rama was the biological son of King Dasaratha.

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  • "On completion of the ritual, six seasons have passed by; then in the twelfth month..." - FYI, the whole set of verses that mentions Rama's birth stars are not part of Critical Edition of Ramayana according to Bibek Debroy. In fact the CE doesn't even mention 12 months have passed after the yajna. – sv. Jul 23 at 23:25
  • @sv.: If I remembered correctly, I had stated in a answer or comment under your question or answer that the scholars of CE on Ramayana didn't take all aspects into consideration. Hence, it is not reliable – Srimannarayana K V Jul 24 at 0:39
  • @sv.: Please check my answer here (hinduism.stackexchange.com/a/34970/3869) – Srimannarayana K V Jul 24 at 0:53
  • Yes, I remember your position on the CE. However, according to CE, the astrology part of Rama's birth was added post-Vishnuization of VR which is why it has been excluded from the CE. I'm just saying the version available at valmikiramayan.net is even more unreliable when it comes to determining who's the parent of who. So how do you pick one version over the other? – sv. Jul 24 at 1:17
  • @sv.: I agree with you as far as astrology issue is concerned, but not with the 12 months portion – Srimannarayana K V Jul 24 at 1:21
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Rama is the biological son of Dasharatha. In most stories, it says that Rama was born to Kasulya because she drank some of the Payasam (sweet that is made with milk and rice) with the other wives. Agni gave them the Payasam so she and the other wives can borne some sons. For more understanding, read this.

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