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I want to know the names of the kings and their kingdoms who participated in Mahabharata war either from Kaurava side or Pandava side.

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    Answer can be found in chapters starting from sacred-texts.com/hin/m06/m06004.htm but this looks too broad to me..
    – YDS
    Oct 19 '20 at 14:24
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    @YDS made it shorter now. :-)
    – TheLittleNaruto
    Oct 19 '20 at 17:49
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    Good question, also, fullest editions/ sets of manuscripts available could include pertinent information, and, possibly some smaller places/ allies of those listed could have been present, yet aren't listed separately. Thank you :)
    – M H
    Nov 17 '20 at 13:02
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+50

In the Mahabharata war, the number of tribes are so numerous that it is difficult to count each and every one of them. Further there are many kingdoms that took part on both sides of the war, adding to the complexity. In the Mahabharata Udyoga Parva (5.19), it is stated that:

there was no space in the city of Hastinapura even for the principal leaders of Duryodhana's army. And for this reason the land of the five rivers, and the whole of the region called Kurujangala, and the forest of Rohitaka which was uniformly wild, and Ahichatra and Kalakuta, and the banks of the Ganga, and Varana, and Vatadhana, and the hill tracts on the border of the Yamuna--the whole of this extensive tract--full of abundant corn and wealth, was entirely overspread with the army of the Kauravas.

Most of the tribes do not mention the kings, and thus these have been included as a continuous list of only kingdoms on either side. Accordingly a list encompassing most (not all) of the kingdoms and tribes can be as under in the format depicitng the kingdom, followed by the king or chief and the reference for either:

Pāṇḍava's side (comprising 7 akṣauhiṇīs)

Main Kingdoms and their kings

  1. Cedi - Dhṛṣṭaketu, son of Śiśupāla (5.19, 5.172, 7.23, 8.20)

  2. Kāśī - Kāśīrāja (4.72)

  3. Kekaya - there were 5 brothers namely Kāśika, Sukumāra, Nīla, Suryadatta and Śaṅkha, who had been deposed of their throne. The other Kekayas were on the Kaurava side (5.172)

  4. Kuntīrāṣṭra - Kuntībhoja and his son Purujit (5.173, 6.75)

  5. Magadha - Sahadeva (5.19, 5.158)

  6. Matsya - Virāṭa (5.19)

  7. Pañcāla - Drupada (4.72, 5.19)

  8. Pāṅḍya - Sarangadhvaja (5.19, 7.23, 8.20)

  9. Śibi - Śaibya (4.72)

  10. Lord Kṛṣṇa, the head of all Yadava kingdoms/tribes (12.80), himself stayed on the Pāṇḍava's side without fighting in the war and merely acted as Arjuna’s charioteer. He had however lent his army to the Kauravas (5.07)

    Sātyaki, another of the Vṛṣṇi Yadava race however did not go to the Kaurava’s side with the rest of the Nārāyaṇa army, but instead acted as a commander of 1 akṣauhiṇī of the Pāṇḍava's troops from various kingdoms (5.19)

Other kingdoms/tribes/sub-tribes:
Anūpaka (6.50) Aśmaka (7.85) Coḷa (8.12) Daśārṇa (6.50, 7.24) Dāśeraka (6.50) Draviḍa (8.12) Hūṇa (6.50) Karūṣa (5.022, 6.56) Keraḷa (8.12) Kulinda (8.85) Kuṇḍīviṣa (6.50) Laḍaka (6.50) Maṇḍaka (6.50) Niṣāda (6.50) Paṭaccara (6.50) Pauravaka (6.50) Piśāca (6.50) Prayāga (6.50) Śavara (6.50) Taṅgaṇa (6.50) Uddra (6.50) Vatsa (6.50) The Somakas, Srinjayas, Prabhadrakas etc. were part of the Pancala tribe and hence not included separately here.

Kaurava's side (comprising 11 akṣauhiṇīs)

Main Kingdoms and their kings

  1. Aṅga - Karṇa (6.17, 8.22)
  2. Avanti - Vinda and Anuvinda (5.167)
  3. Bahlīka - Somadatta and his son Bhūriśravas (5.19, 5.166)
  4. Gāndhāra - Śakuni (5.51, 5.167, 7.7)
  5. Kaliṅga - Śrutāydha (6.16)
  6. Kāmboja - Sudakṣiṅa (5.19)
  7. Kosala - Bṛhadbala (5.167)
  8. Kuru - under the Kauravas
  9. Madra - Śalya (5.8, 5.19, 5.166)
  10. Magadha - Jayatsena, son of Jarasandha (6.16, 6.47, 8.5, 8.73)
  11. Māhiṣmatī - Nīla (5.19)
  12. Prāgjyotiṣa - Bhagadatta (5.19, 5.168)
  13. Sindhu and Sauvīra - Jayadratha (5.19)
  14. Trigarta - five brothers headed by Satyaratha (5.167)
  15. The Nārāyaṇa army of Kṛṣṇa numbering 1 akṣauhiṇī was given to the Kaurava side. They comprised various Yadava tribes like Bhoja, Andhaka, Kukkura, who fought under the command of - Kṛtavarman of the Bhoja tribe (5.07, 5.19, 5.166, 8.11) (As mentioned above, their King, Lord Kṛṣṇa was on the opposite side, as Arjuna’s charioteer)

Other kingdoms/tribes/sub-tribes:
Abhīra (7.20) Abhīṣaha (6.18) Ambaṣṭha - Śrutāyus (6.18, 8.5) Āndhra (5.161, 8.73) Aswalaka (6.51) Barbara (7.118) Cīna - Bhagadatta (5.19) Darada (6.51, 8.73) Dārvābhisāra (8.73) Daśārṇa (6.51, 8.22) Dāśerakas (6.56, 7.20) Draviḍa (5.161, 8.5) Kamaṭha (8.73) Karṇaprāvaraṇa (6.51) Karūṣa (6.56) Kekaya (6.75, 8.5) Khaśa (5.161) Kirāta - Bhagadatta (5.19, 8.73) Kitava (6.18, 7.7) Kṣudraka (6.51, 8.5) Kulūta (8.12) Kuṇḍīviṣa (6.56) Kuntala (6.51) Lalita (7.17, 8.5) Malada (7.7) Mālava (6.51, 7.7, 8.5) Maṇibhadraka (6.51) Matsya (5.161, 6.18) Mekalas (6.88, 8.22) Niṣadha - Bṛhatkṣatra (7.20, 7.30) Pahlava (6.20) Pārada (6.88) Pulinda (5.161, 8.73) Puṇḍra (7.20, 8.22) Ramaṭha (8.73) Recaka (6.51) Śaka - Sudakṣiṅa (5.19, 5.161) Śālva (5.161, 6.18) Samsthana (6.51) Savitriputra (8.5) Śibi (aka Uśīnara) (6.18, 8.5) Siṃhala (7.20) Śūdra (7.7) Śūrasena (6.18, 6.56) Tāmraliptaka (8.22) Taṅgaṇa (8.20, 8.73) Tuṇḍikera (8.5) Tuṣāra (6.75, 8.73) Utkala (8.22) Vamana (6.51) Vaṅga (8.22) Vasati (6.18, 7.20) Vāṭadhāna (6.56, 8.73) Veṇika (6.51) Vikarna (6.51) Vikuñja (6.56) Vṛka (6.51) Yaudheya (8.5) Yavana - Sudakṣiṅa (5.19, 6.20)

Neutral:
1. Rukmī of Vidarbha remained neutral as he was rejected by both sides (5.159)
2. Lord Balarāma too personally stayed out of the war (5.07)

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    WOW! Pretty clean answer.
    – TheLittleNaruto
    Nov 21 '20 at 18:16
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    Good one!..must hv taken much time in compilation..someplaces u hv mentioned race instead of Kingdom..for example, Vṛṣṇi is a race...In neutral, Lord Balram was also there..and u forgot to mention Pandavas' main supporter Lord Krishna.. :)
    – YDS
    Nov 24 '20 at 2:12
  • @YDS Thanks, ya haha it took almost 7 hours on 2 separate days. Okay see Vrishni bhoja would be tribes but then where to include them if not here? because in effect the Vrishnis would be from Krishnas Kingdom so should we say Krishna on Pandavas side With vrishnis and Satyaki? And Narayan gopas on Kauravas side? Didn’t know how to frame it properly. And ya well add Balram once you suggest how to add Krishna and how to change Vrishni Bhoja. I think Ambashtha also can be cut from main and but Down - they were not a “main” Kingdom.
    – Archit
    Nov 24 '20 at 5:51
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    @YDS okay we’ll end the discussion here. Since we don’t know for sure we just leave it. As per your suggestion I’ll add Krishna and Balarama and the Narayani Sena. Is that fine?
    – Archit
    Nov 26 '20 at 6:23
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    Thank you for appending the chapter numbers to each Kingdom, greatly helps to add clarity.
    – Surya
    Jan 13 at 9:44
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Yes there is an account of those Kings supported Duryodhana in Shalya

This wide earth is as much ours as it is of Pritha's son. Bhagadatta and Kripa and Shalya and the two princes of Avanti and Jayadratha and Bhurishrava and Sala and Somadatta and Bahlika and Ashvatthama and the chief of the Bhojas and the mighty prince of Magadha and Vrihadvala and the ruler of the Kasi and Shakuni the son of Subala and many thousands of Mlecchas and Sakas and Yavanas, and Sudakshina the ruler of the Kambojas and the king of the Trigartas and the grandsire Bhishma and Bharadwaja's son and Gotama's son (Kripa) and Srutayush and Ayutayush and Satayush of great energy, and Jalasandha and Rishyasringa's son and the Rakshasa Alayudha, and the mighty-armed Alambusa and the great car-warrior Subala--these and numerous other kings, O best of monarchs, have taken up arms for my sake, prepared to cast away their very lives in great battle, stationed on the field amidst these, and surrounded by my brothers,

Another list of Kings who supported Duryodhana is available in Udyoga Parava

And all of them were conversant with the Vedas, and endued with great bravery, and had practised excellent vows. And all of them were grantors of (other people's) wishes, and all were skilled in battle. Endued with great strength, they set out, reposing confidence on one another, and with singleness of purpose desiring to win in battle the highest regions. And first Vinda and Anuvinda, both of Avanti, and Kekayas, and the Vahlikas, all set out with Bharadwaja's son at their head. Then came Aswatthaman, and Santanu's son (Bhishma), and Jayadratha of the

p. 375

country of the Sindhu, and the kings of the southern and the western countries and of the hilly regions, and Sakuni, the ruler of the Gandharas, and all the chiefs of the eastern and the northern regions, and the Sakas, the Kiratas, and Yavanas, the Sivis and the Vasatis with their Maharathas at the heads of their respective divisions. All these great car-warriors marched in the second division. Then came Kritavarman at the head of his troops, and that mighty car-warrior, viz., the ruler of the Trigartas, and the king Duryodhana surrounded by his brothers, and Sala, and Bhurisravas, and Salya, and Vrihadratha, the ruler of the Kosalas.

And here is an account of panadava army

And all of them were conversant with the Vedas, and endued with great bravery, and had practised excellent vows. And all of them were grantors of (other people's) wishes, and all were skilled in battle. Endued with great strength, they set out, reposing confidence on one another, and with singleness of purpose desiring to win in battle the highest regions. And first Vinda and Anuvinda, both of Avanti, and Kekayas, and the Vahlikas, all set out with Bharadwaja's son at their head. Then came Aswatthaman, and Santanu's son (Bhishma), and Jayadratha of the

p. 375

country of the Sindhu, and the kings of the southern and the western countries and of the hilly regions, and Sakuni, the ruler of the Gandharas, and all the chiefs of the eastern and the northern regions, and the Sakas, the Kiratas, and Yavanas, the Sivis and the Vasatis with their Maharathas at the heads of their respective divisions. All these great car-warriors marched in the second division. Then came Kritavarman at the head of his troops, and that mighty car-warrior, viz., the ruler of the Trigartas, and the king Duryodhana surrounded by his brothers, and Sala, and Bhurisravas, and Salya, and Vrihadratha, the ruler of the Kosalas.

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As Bhīṣma himself said in the 9th UpaParva (i.e. Rathātiratha-Sankhyāna Parva) of the 5th Parva(i.e. Udyoga Parva) of the Mahābhārata, when Duryodhana asked him about the skills of different warriors participating in the great Battle, "It's impossible to list all the kings who participated in the great battle." but an incomplete albeit long list is here and here

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