Maraka planets are the planets that are responsible for death or illness.
Are maraka planets different for dfferent individuals? Or same for all humans?
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Maraka planets are different for every person.
Sage Parashara in Brhat Parashar Hora Shastra says:
2-5. O Brahmin, 3rd and 8th House are the two Houses of longevity. The Houses, related to death, are the 12th from each of these, i.e. 2nd and 7th House are Maraka Houses. Out of the two, 2nd House is a powerful Maraka House. The Lords of 2nd and 7th House, malefics in 2nd and 7th House and malefics, conjunct with 2nds Lord and conjunct with 7ths Lord are all known, as Marakas. The major and sub-periods of these Planets will bring death on the native, depending on whether he is a long life, medium life, or short life person.
6-8. The Dasha of a benefic Planet, related to 12ths Lord may also inflict death. End may descend on the native in 8ths Lords Dasha. The Dasha of a Planet, which is an exclusive malefic, may also cause death.
BPHS Chapter 44, verses 2 to 8.
As we can see, primarily the lords of the 2nd and 7th house and the planets placed in there are called marakas of the native, and their corresponding dashas are called maraka dashas.
One interesting fact to note is that unlike common perception, these planets might not necessarily 'kill' the person physically, but the significations of the person might harm him in his lifetime. For example, Venus (Kalatrakaraka, significator of spouse) seated in 2nd and 7th house might bring various troubles for the native, therefore metaphorically killing him in this life.
However, no inference about the death of the person should be made using this information, as it depends on various other factors like Sun's transit in trines to A8 (Arudha Pada of 8th house), etc. Prediction about death also causes Bramha Dosha, therefore is strictly avoided by Jyotishas.
There are some universal Marakas (malefics) like Saturn, Mars, Rahu and Ketu and there are some universal benefics like Venus and Jupiter. These Marakas usually tend to do only bad to the native and the benefics usually tend to do good.
But based on individual horoscopes these malefics change. For example, for some particular chart, Jupiter or Venus can be a Maraka and for some particular chart Saturn can be good and even a Yoga Karaka.
Quoting from the "Madhya Parashari":
13-14. For the natives of Cancer Asc. (Ascendant) Venus-Mercury are evil; Mars-Jupiter are good. Mars only is especially a Yoga Karaka. Saturn is a Maraka and other malefics are also Marakas.
15-16. For the natives of Leo Asc. (Ascendant) Mercury-Venus are evil; Mars-Jupiter are good. Relationship between Jupiter-Venus does not become Yogakaraka. Mercury and other malefics are Marakas.
17-18. For the natives of Virgo Asc. (Ascendant) Mars-Jupiter-Moon are evil. Venus only is auspicious. Venus + Mercury are Yoga Karaka. Though Venus is Markesh, she owns the 9th also: therefore, is not a Maraka. Mars etc. other planets are Marakas. So should the learned read the Virgo Asc. Chart.
19-20. For the natives of Libra Asc. (Ascendant) Jupiter, Sun-Mars are evil; Saturn-Mercury are good; Moon-Mercury are Raja Yoga Karaka; Mars, a Maraka; Jupiter-Sun-Mars are also Marakas and Venus is neutral – so should the learned know of the planets of Libra Asc. Charts.
21-22. For the natives of Scorpio Asc. (Ascendant) Mercury-Mars-Venus are evil; Jupiter-Moon are good; the Sun-Moon are Raja Yoga Karaka. Jupiter even by owning the 2nd (Maraka) is not Markesh. Mercury etc. other evil planets are Marakas. So should the learned know the effects of planets of Scorpio Asc. born.
23-24. For the natives of Sagittarius Asc. (Ascendant) Venus is the only evil planet; Mars – the Sun are good; the Sun – Mercury are Yogakaraka; Saturn is the Chief Markesh; but does not kill. In the same way Venus etc. evil planets in their Dashas and Antar prove to be fatal and show all the killing qualities.
25-26. For the natives of Capricorn Asc. (Ascendant) Mars, Jupiter and Moon are evil; Venus and Mercury are good; Saturn being a Markesh is not a killer; Mars etc. other malefics, when they have Maraka characteristics become such. Only Venus is a Yoga Karaka.
27-28. For the natives of Aquarius Asc. Jupiter, Moon and Mars are evil; only Venus is good and Yoga Karaka. When Jupiter, Moon and Mars show Maraka characteristics they become Markesh.
29-30. For the natives of Pisces Asc. Saturn, Venus, the Sun and Mercury are evil. Mars and Moon are good. Mars + Jupiter are Yoga Karaka. in spite of the Maraka characteristics Mars does not become a Markesh. Saturn and Mercury are Marakas. So should the learned accept the effects on Pisces born natives.
So, Marakatva is basically determined from the Lagna (ascendant) of the particular chart.