After hearing lectures on Brahman, I came to know that Brahman has two properties: Existence (sat) and conciousness/life(chit).

Which scripture tells this? Are there any other (least) properties that can be attributed to Brahman alone?

  • 1
    There is already a similar question here - See this post - hinduism.stackexchange.com/questions/29250/… Commented Dec 17, 2020 at 14:46
  • @SwiftPushkar Yeah, I intend to know the least qualities...
    – hanugm
    Commented Dec 17, 2020 at 15:45
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    there are no 'least' or 'greater' 'properties' to Brahman. There are no 'properties' to Brahman - Brahman has no attributes. Brahman IS Absolute Existence, Absolute Consciousness. Brahman is homogeneous, the same throughout...To say that there was a 'greater' or lesser' would imply that Brahman was not homogeneous. The Upanishads in innumerable places say this. Commented Dec 18, 2020 at 4:12
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    See Brahma Sutras 3.2.16-17 here - wisdomlib.org/hinduism/book/brahma-sutras Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4.5.13 - 'As a lump of salt is without interior or exterior, entire, and purely salt in taste, even so is the Self without interior or exterior, entire, and Pure Intelligence alone. It is mere intelligence, self-effulgent, homogenous, and with out attributes. Commented Dec 18, 2020 at 4:28
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    Everyone here is misunderstanding the question. OP is asking what are the bare minimum most essential definition of Brahman. He has already listed sat and chit. Just add Ananda as well. Taittiriya Upanishad Bhrigu Valli climax is "आनन्दो ब्रह्मेति व्यजानात्" - "He realized that Brahman in Ananda". That's it. Of course, everything is Brahman.
    – RamAbloh
    Commented Dec 22, 2020 at 0:28

1 Answer 1


You are absolutely accurate in questioning!! (your question has its answer in it).

वदन्ति तत्तत्त्वविदस्तत्त्वं यज्ज्ञानमद्वयम् ब्रह्मेति परमात्मेति भगवानिति शब्द्यते vadanti tat tattva-vidas tattvaṁ yaj jñānam advayam brahmeti paramātmeti bhagavān iti śabdyate

Translation: vadanti — It is said; tat — that; tattva-vidaḥ — who understood the eternal knowledge; tattvam — the true state; yat — of; jñānam — knowledge (knowing); advayam — is just one (ultimate); brahman iti — Brahman as; paramātmā iti — Paramātmā as; bhagavān iti — Bhagavan (God) as; śabdyate — are just words (referred to the same ultimate eternity);

Meaning: It is said by those who are vedic scholars in understanding the eternal knowledge, the true state of knowledge (knowing) can only be one (without a second one, ultimate). Brahman or Paramatma or Bhagavan (God) are just words (referred to the same ultimate eternity, at a respective state of knowledge).

Sat-Chit-Anand: Sat and Chit are "Visheshan" or adjectives for the Noun "Visheshya", Anand or Bhagwan. That's why He Himself is called as Chidanand or only Anand. Anand or Bliss which is followed by Rasa. "Anando Brahmaneti vyajanaat..." and is never called like as "Anandam tasmin..".

The Rasa or Nectar of devotion could help identify the Brahman (Sat), Parmatama (Chit) and Bhagwan (Anand). He is expressed as "Raso vai Sah.." by the Vedas. The prime Rasas are five: Shanta rasa, Das Rasa, Sakhya Rasa, Vatsalya Rasa and Madhurya. As Bhagwan (Anand) He reveals all the Rasas. As Parmatama (Chidanand) He manifests only Das Rasa and Shant Rasa. And as the Brahman (Sat, "Om Tat Sat") only shanta rasa is developled. This is the basic brahman tatva science, explained in the B.Gita.

When He is telling arjuna about His Brahman attributes, He is praising the "jnani", because Brahman worshipers are shanta-bhava oriented followers, who get kaivalya-mukti (a.k.a. sayujya-moxa or Brahmajyoti-moxa, the standard form of incomplete liberation which is without eternal services). https://www.holy-bhagavad-gita.org/chapter/7/verse/17

And when Krishna blesses arjuna to become a yogi, He is revealing His Shant and Das Rasa as well. His worship or attachment in the Parmatama form, as His eternal servant, is Yog (not to be confused with yogasana exercises). The Yogis, could get higher levels in moxa or liberation, viz. "Samipya", "Salokya", "Sarashti" or "Sarupya". These liberations are granted with the divine services of Narayan and other avatars at the God's Kingdom (or Vaikunthas). https://www.holy-bhagavad-gita.org/chapter/6/verse/46

Nevertheless, summarisingly repeating and concluding B.Gita He asked arjuna to become His Bhakta by surrendering mind and intelligence unto Him. "Manamana bhav madbhakto..". The Bhakta can worship Him in all the features revealed including "madhurya" or "shringar" Prem Rasa. Here He becomes Supreme Authority, "Bhagvan", with all the features/Rasa revealed to His followers or devotees. The Golokam/Krishna-lokam/Svetadwipam is where the eternal pastimes are prescribed services by Him in B.Gita 9.34 & 18.65 for His Bhakta/devotee. https://www.holy-bhagavad-gita.org/chapter/9/verse/34



Important point here is, He is always equally present in all His forms as Brahman, Parmatama or Bhagwan. He is always Almighty and Supreme as Brahman, Parmatama or Bhagwan. Sril Tulsi Pandit says this as, "Hari/Prabhu vyapak sarvatra samana.."

By the way, as there is no difference between the water, its vapour, and as ice. All are but the same. Yes, it's upto our intelligence and interpretation, however, to identify the properties of its use as different form of water. For His child devotee, Prahlad Maharaja, He conditioned Himself from a pillar. He changed and revealed from omnipresent unmanifested Brahman to His Narsimha Parmatama form.

The (minimum, latent) properties as Brahman, however, (if) revealed to the Brahman followers (liberation seekers) are two; viz. "Vibhu-Chit" or Infinite eternal consciousness which represents Brahman as universally omnipresent and "Sat" or indestructible timeless eternity which is the true invincible property of the Brahman.

Reference sources:

  1. Taitreya Upnishad
  2. Shvetashwatar Upnishad
  3. Bh.Gita, (6.46), (7.17), (9.34), (18.65)
  4. Ramacharitamanas
  5. Vedanta Sutras
  6. Srimad Bhagavatam, (1.2.11).
  7. Bhakti Rasamrita Sindhu (Western Division)



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  • 1
    You references are too vague. You need to add specific verses or chapter numbers.
    – Wikash_
    Commented Dec 21, 2020 at 15:22

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