enter image description here Non Dwijas aren't qualified to acquire knowledge of Brahman from Vedas(Upanishads) but can acquire so from Itihasas and Puranas. Are there any meditational techniques prescribed in them to realize Brahman for Non Dwijas? Can Brahman be realised without the 32 Upasanas in Upanishads? If yes what are those meditational techniques in Itihasas and Puranas prescribed to realize Brahman? How did Vidura etc all attain Bramha Jnana and Yajnavalkya also says learn Bramha Jnana from Sudras in Mahabharata. Reading Astavarka Gita Avathuta Gita Bhagavadgita Ribhu Gita etc all bestows knowledge of Brahman and prescribes meditational techniques? Note : I am aware of Varna system which can change also but please don't give me that answer. Kindly answer from traditional way.

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    Nice Q. In this answer they say shudras are eligible for gyanakanda. Also you can see : answer only for reference that valmiki the robber (though Brahmin) got Rama nama mantra japa and realised god
    – Adiyarkku
    Commented Jan 15, 2021 at 3:14
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    "This Atman is not to be attained by the study of the vedas, nor by the highest intellect, nor by much learning. Whom the Atman seeks, he gets the Atman; unto him He discloses His glory." - Mundaka Upanishad III. ii. 3. The Atman seeks those who have a deep hankering for Him. Long for HIm. See Gita Chapter 18, verses 65-66. Commented Jan 15, 2021 at 4:56
  • @SwamiVishwananda Thankyou. Can you kindly tell if one can realise Brahman without the 32 Bramha Vidyas and if there are any meditational techniques in Puranas/Itihasas to realise Brahman?? Commented Jan 15, 2021 at 5:33
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    @Archit But I am asking about Impersonal Brahman Commented Jan 15, 2021 at 5:41
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    @Sethuji you mean formless nirguna Brahman?
    – Adiyarkku
    Commented Jan 15, 2021 at 6:41

1 Answer 1


There are many books other than upanishads that talk about meditation techniques for realising Nirguna Brahman.

For example, Atma bodha

  1. Sitting alone freeing the mind from desires and controlling the senses, meditate with unswerving attention on the Atman.

  2. The wise one should intelligently merge the entire world-of-objects in the Atman alone and constantly think of the Self.

  3. He who has realized the Supreme, discards all his identification with the objects of names and forms. He is as an embodiment of the Infinite Consciousness and Bliss. He is the Self.

More descriptions can be found in earlier verses

Through discriminative self-analysis and logical thinking, one should separate the Atman from the sheaths..Consciousness (Atman) does not shine in everything though all-pervasive. Only if there is inner equipment (Buddhi/manas), He is manifest just as the reflection in a clean mirror...

Similarly, In avaduta gita

The essence and the whole message of Vedanta is this Knowledge, this supreme Knowledge: that I am by nature the formless, all-pervasive Self.‖ Meditate on this Truth to realise the Self.

In vivekachudamani

  1. The firm experience of the nature of the Self is seen to proceed from inquiry

Similarly, Bhagavad Gita with Shankara's bhasya etc., yoga vasistha etc. provide many details on self-enquiry.


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