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Different schools of thought in Hinduism have different ways to attain Moksha.

Do any school believe in "there way is only way"?

And do the different schools believe that people that believe in other schools can not attain Moksha. For example : Do Dvaita Vedanta believe people who believe in nastika or Samkhya philosophy can not attain Moksha.

Because dvaita believes in devotion(worship) but Samkhya believe in meditation.

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    There's also further subtypes of Moksha, mainly 4 or 5. Out of which only the last one is the 'true one'!
    – peace
    Mar 7 at 2:47
  • @Vivikta can you tell which one is the true one Mar 7 at 5:44
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    There can be several types depending on the School of Thought, ex: Kaivalya (कैवल्यं), Sālokya (सालोक्यं) , Sāmīpya (सामीप्यं) , Sārūpya (सारूप्यं), Sāyujya (सायुज्यं), Sārṣṭi (सार्ष्टि ), etc.
    – peace
    Mar 7 at 7:46
  • Basically yes to all your questions; that is why there are different schools, people have their own views.
    – Ikshvaku
    Mar 7 at 20:59
  • A better way is to ask what defines moksha for various schools. Moksha, as defined, by Yoga, Nyaya, Mimansa, Advaita, Dvaita are entirely different.
    – GIRIBLR
    Mar 8 at 5:13
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The various Vedantic sects are divided into those that consider Brahman to be different from Jiva (dualists) and those that consider them to be identical (non-dualists). Most of these schools acknowledge that people following other schools can attain high spiritual states. What nondualists are not sure of is whether dualists must have the experience of Nirvana. Similarly dualists are not sure if nondualists can experience the intense bliss enjoyed by the dualists.

Mahima: "I have a question to ask sir. A lover of God needs Nirvana (total annihilation of ego -- the ideal of the jnani) some time or other, doesn't he?

Master: "It can't be said that bhaktas need Nirvana. According to some schools there is an eternal Krishna and there are His eternal devotees. Krishna is spirit embodied, and His abode is also spirit embodied. Krishna is eternal and His devotees are also eternal."

The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, Chapter 41, At Ram's House

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One person's Moksha cannot be determined by what he believes in one birth. For example Ajamila who did every bad deed possible, finally attained Moksha due to the utterance of the word Narayana to call his son of the same name. After that anyway he did not attain it instantly but it changed his life forever and then he did his sadhana to attain Moksha. Acharya Madhva, who is the propounder of Dvaita vedanta/Tatvavada gives us an important concept of 'Svabhava' (intrinsic nature). One does sadhana based on this only, but he might be influenced by several factors like birth environment etc. But if his svabhava is Satvik in nature, eventually even though he believes in an atheistic philosophy, he will some day realize the truth and does Sadhana in that path and finally attains Moksha. However, this may never happen also if his nature is Tamasic and may never attain Moksha but will finally attain eternal hell called 'Andhan Tamas'. This is based on Krishna's dictum in Bhagavadgita- 'maam apraapyaiva kaunteya tato yaanti adhamaam gatiM' meaning, such a soul will never attain me and goes to nether worlds !

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See, there are different paths for enlightenment and they are chosen by an individual based on his own understanding and convenience. The Scriptures say all paths will lead to Moksha if perused properly. Moksha means Moha+Kshaya-Destruction of desires and attachments and attainment of happiness irrespective of external circumstances. This is the goal of Indian Philosophy. I will attach few quotes here.

  • In whatever way people surrender unto me, I reciprocate with them accordingly. Everyone follows my path, knowingly or unknowingly, O son of Pritha.(Bhagavad Gita 4.11)
  • As the different streams having their sources in different places all mingle their water in the sea, so, O Lord, the different paths which men take through different tendencies, various though they appear, crooked or straight, all lead to Thee.”(Shiva-Mahimna-Stotra compiled by Pushpadanta)
  • Oh mother, I have uptill now explained to you the knowledge that leads to the realization of the Brahman. It is by this knowledge that the real nature of Prakrti and Purusa is clearly understood. The path of knowledge pertains to the attributeless Brahman while the Yoga called Bhakti is based on firm devotion to me. But both of them have the same objective viz the realization of the Supreme Lord. Just as the same object possessing many attributes is perceived in different forms by the sense-organs with separate functions , similarly the Supreme Lord (though absolutely one without a second) is seen in different ways through different sastras.(Srimad Bhagavatam 3.32.31-33)
  • All Vedic and Non Vedic Shastras and many more Sastras, the Omniscient Divine Being has made in brief.The wise say that each of these sastras is intended for a particular class according to the individual qualification, not all for one. As all streams ultimately empty themselves into the ocean, so all these paths ultimately lead to the Mahesvara Himself. Worshipped in what form so ever by people as ordained in their respective scriptures. He assumes that form and takes the devotee on to the next higher step, By His Grace man attains to superior paths. Thus these paths, laid out as they are by Shiva, are all of them true and serviceable. Shiva is supremely merciful, omniscient, and altogether stainless. Yet of all the paths, the path of the Veda is the best as conducing to all good." (Chapter 22, Yajna Vaibhava Khanda, Suta Samhita, Skanda Purana )

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