Rudra means king

Dayananda Saraswati has translated Rudra to mean king in the Sri Rudram (Yajurveda Chapter 16)

Does Yajurveda tells about Shiva having the qualities of a king?

What is the meaning of Rudra given in the Nirukta.


Does Yajurveda tells about Shiva having the qualities of a king?

Not sure what you exactly mean by having qualities of King. If by quality of King you mean being a ruler, Sri Rudram clearly establishes Lord Shiva as the Lord of Everything. The Anuvakam 2 of Sri Rudram is solely dedicated to call Lord Rudra as Lord of various things which are:

Following are the verses from Anuvakam 2:

दिशां च पतये नमः । Lord of Directions (Disha)

पशूनां पतये नमः । Lord of Pashus

पथीनं पतये नमः । Lord of Paths (Path)

अन्नानां पतये नमः । Lord of Food (Anna)

पुष्टानां पतये नमः । Lord of Nourishment (Pushti)

जगतां पतये नमः । Lord of the Universe (Jagat)

क्षेत्राणां पतये नमः । Lord of Area (Kshetra)

वनानां पतये नमः । Lord of Forest (Vana)

वृक्षाणां पतये नमः । Lord of Plants (Vriksha)

कक्षाणां पतये नमः । Lord of inaccessible places (Kakshya)

ओषधीनां पतये नमः । Lord of Medicines (Aausadhi)

पत्तीनां पतये नमः । Lord of Soldiers सत्वनां पतये नमः । Lord of Virtuous (Satwa)

Similarly the 11th Anuvakam says:

ये भूतानामधिपतयो Who is the Lord of all beings (Bhutanam Adhipati)

The 10th Anuvakam also addresses Lord as Bhagvan Ishana (Ruler):

तासामीशानो भगवः Ruler Bhagvan (Ishano Bhagava)

I discuss in my answer here regarding etymology of the name Rudra:

यद्रोदोत् तस्माद्रुद्र। He cries therfore he is Rudra | संहारकाले प्रजा: संहरन् रोदयतीति रुद्र:। He makes people weep by destroying during Samhara Kala (destruction time), thus he is called Rudra। रुर्दु:खं दुःखकारणं वा, द्रावयतीति वा रुद्र:। Ru is suffering or cause of suffering and he who destroys it is Rudra रोदनाद् द्रावणाद्वापि रुद्र इत्युच्यते। He drives away the Rodana (cry) thus called Rudra रुदं राति ददातीति वा रुद्र:। He gives voice (ie Rud) so he is called Rudra।

Regarding the various types of Rudra, I discuss it in my answer here.


This is a very challenging question because Rudra is Divine Contradiction, so before giving 7 meanings let me give an example, The RV hymns say He is “fierce/mighty”, then in contradiction, they call him “pleasant with beneficent heart”. He is “the resort/lord to all hymns/songs”, He is “the resort/lord of all yajñá/sacrifice”, and “He is bliss”. So many authentic Scholars were baffled in exploring Rudra. So, let's try to define the meaning of the word Rudra:

Sri Aurobindo said Rudra = force that propels creation. Sukla Yajur Vedā Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā 16.31 says: Rudra is "both the hasty/active/rapid and yet calm" Prajapati said: Rud means cry. So your are the first cry so I call you Rudra. Rudra = Raw/Unmanifest: Because Rudra can manifest in anything and in everything. (This is a huge subject and the link is below) Yajur Veda says : Since this form originated from anguish/cry (ruditāt), He is called Rudra. So, the word Rudra has many meanings based on the process involved, this is why Rudra is the Divinity of many contradictions. This incomprehensible fierce form frightened all the Devas, so they asked Prajāpati to pacify him. They gathered calming oblations/offerings called Śāntadevatyam; this calming oblation to Rudra is called Śāntarudriya. Yajur Veda also says Rudra means: Drāpa / Andhasahpathi: the dispelled of Darkness. Rudra = He is the one who makes us weep with His roar, which is his feared aspect. In contradiction, all three profound commentators Sāyaṇācārya, Bhattabhaskara, and Abhinavasankara defined Rudra asरुदं द्रावयतीति इति रुद्र, meaning the one who removes the cause of our grief is Rudra. Here people will choose the title that fits their narrative. So you can choose that which appeals to you. Pranam

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