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I have watched several people giving arghya to Surya, even before sunrise (when sun is even not visible ). Sometimes, people give arghya when sun in above the head. They'll just point to the east direction and give arghya just in a ceremonial or ritualistic gesture.

Sometimes, people live in flats and apartments, where the morning or evening or anytime, the sun might not be visible at all throughout the day.

Is this kind of arghya even valid ? Shouldn't the sun be rising in the east and properly visible, when arghya is given? Or even, mere symbolic gestures of the rituals are acceptable?

(Obviously, I'm talking about general days when there's no emergencies (aapaatkaalama-stithi) like unchecked weather, etc).

And, also, how to resolve the problems of no sun visibility, due to infrastructural problems or other unexpected situations?

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காணாமல் , கோணாமல் , கண்டு

Kaanamal, Konaamal, Kandu

Above is a Tamil dictum for Tri-kala Sandhya-Vandana that explains when Arghya must be given.

Pratah - Kaanamal (morning - unseen i.e. before sunrise at 6)

Madhyan - Konaamal (afternoon - un-angled i.e. right above head at 12)

Sayam - Kandu (evening - seen i.e. before sunset at 6)

Symbolic gestures are also allowed e.g. cloudy sky is not an excuse to not do it.

Source - https://kamakoti.org/hindudharma/part19/chap10.htm

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