We reffer Goddess Kali as maa (mother) Kali but we don't reffer God Shiva as pita(father) Shiva.
Not just that we reffer all female Goddess(Lakshmi,Durga, Parvati) as Maa but we don't do the same for the 3 main gods(Shiva, Vishnu and Brahmaa).

What is the reason behind it?

  • 2
    The word pita for several gods used is as jagata-pita, and equivalently for females jagata-mãtã. For the female energies, the use of the word mata might relate to the same very reasons as to why one cannot develop madhurya-rasa bhakti bhava towards any female divinity. Moreover, it can be more of a "popular" practice to call the female divinities as maa, rather than any particular religious injunctions. One can of course call any form of divinity as their mother - father (mata- pita), because they are the parents for whole creation itself.
    – Vivikta
    Commented Mar 22, 2021 at 7:19
  • 1
    @Vivikta "madhurya-rasa bhakti" what is the meaning of this. Commented Mar 22, 2021 at 7:59
  • This & This , please read these two.
    – Vivikta
    Commented Mar 22, 2021 at 8:24

1 Answer 1


It is not true that Lord Shiva isn't referred to as the father.

In Adi Shankara's Annapurna Stotram itself we find one such reference:

क्षत्रत्राणकरी महाऽभयकरी माता कृपासागरी
साक्षान्मोक्षकरी सदा शिवकरी विश्वेश्वरश्रीधरी ।
दक्षाक्रन्दकरी निरामयकरी काशीपुराधीश्वरी
भिक्षां देहि कृपावलम्बनकरी मातान्नपूर्णेश्वरी ॥१०॥

Kssatra-Traanna-Karii Mahaa-[A]bhaya-Karii Maataa Krpaa-Saagarii
Saakssaan-Mokssa-Karii Sadaa Shiva-Karii Vishveshvara-Shrii-Dharii |
Dakssaa-Kranda-Karii Niraamaya-Karii Kaashii-Pura-Adhiishvarii
Bhikssaam Dehi Krpa-Avalambana-Karii Maata-Annapuurnne[a-Ii]shvarii ||10||


10.1: (Salutations to Mother Annapoorna) Whose Great Power Protects the Devotees and grants them Great Fearlessness; Who is the Great Mother and an Ocean of Compassion, 10.2: Whose Divine Form is a Visible bestower of Liberation and Whose presence always brings Auspicious blessings; Who is indeed the repository of the Sri (Prosperity, Welfare and Auspiciousness) of Visweswara (Shiva), 10.3: Who makes Daksha (symbol of ego) Cry and in that repentence makes him Pure; Who is the Ruling Mother of the city of Kasi, 10.4: O Mother Annapoorneswari, Please grant us the Alms of Your Grace; Your Grace which Support all the Worlds.

अन्नपूर्णे सदापूर्णे शङ्करप्राणवल्लभे ।
ज्ञानवैराग्यसिद्ध्यर्थं भिक्षां देहि च पार्वति ॥११॥

Annapuurnne Sadaa-Puurnne Shangkara-Praanna-Vallabhe |
Jnyaana-Vairaagya-Siddhy[i]-Artham Bhikssaam Dehi Ca Paarvati ||11||


11.1: (Salutations to Mother Annapoorna) O Mother Annapoorna, You Who are always Full (with the gift of Food and Blessings), You Who are the Beloved of Shankara, ... 11.2: ... O Mother Parvati, Please grant me the Alms of Your Grace, to awaken within me Spiritual Knowledge and Freedom from all Worldly Desires.

माता च पार्वती देवी पिता देवो महेश्वरः ।
बान्धवाः शिवभक्ताश्च स्वदेशो भुवनत्रयम् ॥१२॥

Maataa Ca Paarvatii Devii Pitaa Devo Maheshvarah |
Baandhavaah Shiva-Bhaktaash-Ca Svadesho Bhuvana-Trayam ||12||


12.1: (Salutations to Mother Annapoorna) My Mother is Devi Parvati, and my Father is Deva Maheswara (Shiva), 12.2: My Friends are the devotees of Shiva, and my Country is all the Three Worlds (Whose Lord is Shiva-Parvati).

  • But commonly people don't say this. Why Commented Mar 22, 2021 at 13:01
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    In our place (Bengal) people address Lord Shiva as 'Baba" very often. And Baba in Bengali means father @DarkKnight
    – Rickross
    Commented Mar 22, 2021 at 15:57
  • 1
    @DarkKnight Lord Shiva is fondly referred to as "Bhole Baba" by his devotees. And Baba means father. So it's not that uncommon too.
    – Rickross
    Commented Mar 23, 2021 at 7:13
  • okay, thanks of this Commented Mar 23, 2021 at 7:15

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