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Ṛg Veda 1.164.46.:

इन्द्रं॑ मि॒त्रं वरु॑णम॒ग्निमा॑हु॒रथो॑ दि॒व्यः स सु॑प॒र्णो ग॒रुत्मा॑न् । एकं॒ सद्विप्रा॑ बहु॒धा व॑दन्त्य॒ग्निं य॒मं मा॑त॒रिश्वा॑नमाहुः ॥४६॥

Sat is grammatically neuter.:

सत् n. that which really is, entity or existence, essence, the true being or really existent (in the Vedânta, ‘the self-existent or Universal Spirit, Brahma’).

Is the verse, saying what is ultimately real is impersonal, and personal Devas or deities like Indra, Mitra, Varuna et al. spoken of by sages are manifestations of the impersonal truth.?

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    The Interpretation would depend on the school. Vaishnavas interpret the sat as referring to Vishnu and all names such as 'Indra' , ' Mitra' 'Varuna' etc originally belonging to him and worship of all deities culminating in him. Shaivas interpret it similarly but with respect to Shiva. Smartas interpret it in the way you mention
    – user30521
    Jul 3, 2023 at 2:10

5 Answers 5

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All the answers here are far-fetched and non intuitive. The answer to your question is in RV itself, in the same Suktam.

But first, lets look at the mantra itself:

  • Indra
  • Mitra
  • Varuna
  • Agni
  • Garuda
  • Yama
  • Maatarishvaan

Do you notice a common feature?

They're all linked to Surya. Firstly, Indra, Mitra and Varuna are 3 of the 12 Aadityas. Agni and Surya are extremely closely linked too. Agni is called the manifestation of Surya on the Bhu loka.

अदित्यां द्वादशादित्याः संभूता भुवनेश्वराः। ये राजन्नामतस्तांस्ते कीर्तयिष्यामि भारत॥ 1-66-14 धाता मित्रोऽर्यमा शक्रो वरुणस्त्वंश एव च। भगो विवस्वान्पूषा च सविता दशमस्तथा॥ 1-66-15 source Mahabharata Adi Parva, Adhyaaya 66, Shloka 14-15, Kumbhaghonam version

From Aditi were born the 12 Aadityas, rulers of the BhuvarLoka, now I will tell you their names, o King of the Bharata Dynasty. Dhaataa, Mitra, Aryamaa, Shakra(aka Indra), Varuna. As well as, Bhaga, Vivasvaan, Pushaa, and the tenth, Savitaa.

As for Garuda?

वैनतेयस्तु गरुडो बलवानरुणस्तथा। बृहस्पतिश्च भगवानादित्येष्वेव गण्यते॥ 1-67-39 Mahabharata Adi Parva, Adhyaaya 67, Shloka 39, Kumbhaghonam version

The son of Vinataa (Garuda) and the strong Aruna as well as Bhagavaan Brhaspati, all these three are counted among the Aadityas.

This clearly indicates that the 'one' being referred to is Surya Deva and not someone else.

Yama, also is the son of Surya Deva.

Maatarishvaan is a bit harder to pin down and there's little known about him, so it's best to skip him.

Now, the context:

RV 1.164.48 mentions a wheel with 12 spokes (referring to the 12 Aadityas). This happens two mantras after this one.

RV 1.164.2 also clearly mentions 7 horses, which is also another clear reference to Surya Deva.

Imagining any other meaning to this would be a fantasy, and nothing more.


Rough meaning:

"That Surya, is said to manifest in the forms of Indra, Mitra...etc by the learned"

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  • Cool is this Suryanarayana or just Surya?
    – Haridasa
    Apr 29 at 10:58
  • @Haridasa This can refer to both, but most likely, it refers to Surya Devataa, as in the Devataa ruling the physical orb that you can reach and see. Regarding the Aaditya connections to Surya, he acts like a Vessel of sorts and contains the Aadityas during various time periods. This is most apparent with the 12 Aadityas. You can read Shrimad Bhagvatam 12.11.~30-45 regarding more info of this. The 12 furthermore can be considered as his parts.-- As a general rule, Vedas do not refer to Ishvara by design. They connect to Individual devataas, and that should be taken as the default. Apr 29 at 18:39
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Ekam sat viprah bahuda vadanti

Rigveda 1.164.46

That sat (parabrahman) is known by different names.

राम एव परं ब्रह्म राम एव परं तपः ।। राम एव परं तत्त्वं श्रीरामो ब्रह्म तारकम्।।

Atharvaveda Shruti

राम ही परम ब्रह्म हैं। राम ही परम तपःस्वरूप हैं। राम ही परम तत्त्व हैं। वे राम ही तारकब्रह्म हैं ।

Rama is the Supreme Brahman. Rama is the supreme form of penance. Rama is the ultimate essence. That Rama is the Taraka Brahman.

Śrī Parashara Smriti clearly says;

राम एव परं ब्रह्म परमात्माभिधीयते। रामात्परतरं नास्ति यत्किचित्स्थूलसूक्ष्मकम्॥ ब्रह्मविष्णुशिवाः सर्वेइंद्रो निर्वरुणो यमः । सूर्यश्चंद्रश्च खं भूमिराकाशस्त्वनिलो ह्यपः॥ सर्वे ते रामचंद्रस्य तेजसा संप्रतिष्ठिताः । भूतं भव्यं भविष्यच्च सर्वे रामसमुद्भवम्॥

Quoted from omkarnath rachnavali

Meaning- Lord Śrī Rāmbhadrā is the Supreme God, whatever is gross and subtle, none of them is beyond Śrī Rāma, that is why Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva all these and Indra, Agni, Varun, Yama, Sun, Moon, Heaven, Earth, sky, wind, water, all these have been established by the glory of Lord Śrī Rāmachandrā and all these three times past, future and present and whatever will be born and has been born in these three times, all that has been born from Śrī Rāma only.

Also from Shiva smriti (dharma shastra)

पदश्रवणराननवाणी त्वग् नयन नासिकादि इन्द्रिय विषयाधीषैः । विवर्जितो रामः साक्षात् परब्रह्म विग्रहः सच्चिदानन्दात्म स्वयम्।।

Shiva smriti

Shri Ram is sakshat parabrahman that is devoid of sensory eg nose, eyes, feet, hands, face etc

Also Narad Pancharatra antargat Maheshwar tantra says shri Ram as paripurntam brahman

Sudarshan samhita calls shri ram as sakshat sanatan parabrahman

Even shiva samhita calls shri Ram as nirishwara ( the god who has no god supreme to him, because he is himself supreme god)

There are many refrences that Shri Ram as supreme God.

I think these above refrences will help you answer your question.

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Nope, here sat is the Nirguna Brahman who takes the Saguna forms.

It's same as the worship of all deities culminates in the worship of the Brahman. And the vice versa is also true that all the worship goes to the Brahman only.

According to Nirvana Upanishad, how a yogi achieves Nirvana aka Moksha is given.:

विष्णुविद्यादिशताभिधानलक्ष्यम् । .

The (worship of) gods named Vishnu, Brahma and a hundred others culminates (in Brahman). (Verse 29).

And Who is that Brahman after oneness with whom a yogi gets nirvana.:

परापवादमुक्तो जीवन्मुक्तः | शिवयोगनिद्रा च ।

Liberated while alive, as they are freed from denial of the highest (Brahman). The oneness with Siva is their sleep. (Verse 24-25).

So, Rig Veda 1.164.46.:

इन्द्रं॑ मि॒त्रं वरु॑णम॒ग्निमा॑हु॒रथो॑ दि॒व्यः स सु॑प॒र्णो ग॒रुत्मा॑न् । एकं॒ सद्विप्रा॑ बहु॒धा व॑दन्त्य॒ग्निं य॒मं मा॑त॒रिश्वा॑नमाहुः ॥

They have styled Him as Indra, Mitra, Varuṇa, Agni, and he is the celestial, well-winged Garutmat, for learned priests call the One by many names as they speak of Agni, Yama, Mātariśvan.

Again,

Shambhu alone is known by the names of Indra, Mitra, and Agni. For the sake of those who are confused , Brahmanas speak of them in different ways.

~ Brahma Purana 2 (88) Bibek Debroy.

I hope this clarifies your queries. Prd..

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[ Disclaimer - Answer From A Saiva Perspective ]

The Saiva-para Upabrahmana of the Above verses of the Rig veda occur in the Kurma Purana, Siva Rahasya Mahetihasa and the Brahma Purana(Which another answer has already cited). Which points out that it is verily Siva alone who is known through all these names and forms. He Alone takes on All those attributes through Maya to reward all those who adore him through those names and forms.

Siva-Rahasya Mahetihasa, 1st Amsha, Chapter 3

एष ब्रह्मैष विष्णुश्च एष देवो विराजते । एष भूतपतिर्देवो(व) एष सेतुर्विधारणः । एकमेव महादेवमिन्द्रमित्रादिभिः सुरैः । नामरूपगुणैश्चैव मायया मन्यते जनः ।

Mahadeva alone is known by the names of Brahma, Vishnu, Indra, Mitra, etc. by the gods. He alone is known thus with names and forms due to maayaa by people.

Kurma Purana II.46.34-36

गीयते सर्वशक्त्यात्मा शूलपाणिर्महेश्वरः । एनमेके वदन्त्यग्निं नारायणमथापरे ।४६.३४ इन्द्रमेके परे प्राणं ब्रह्माणमपरे जगुः । ब्रह्मविष्णवग्निवरुणाः सर्वे देवास्तथर्षयः ।४६.३५ एकस्यैवाथ रुद्रस्य भेदास्ते परिकीर्त्तिताः । यं यं भेदं समाश्रित्य यजन्ति परमेश्वरम् ।४६.३६ तत् तद् रूपं समास्थाय प्रददाति फलं शिवः ।

Some call Agni as Isvara, others calls Narayana as such, Some call It Indra, Some call it Prana and others call it Brahma. Really Speaking, Brahma, Visnu, Agni, Varuna, all Devas as well as sages are glorified as variants of one same entity- Rudra.

In whatever forma devotee adores Paramesvara, Lord Siva Appears before him in the same form to bestow rewards on him.

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It is none other that Supreme Lord Paramaśiva who is glorified through the very famous Rig Vedic quotation "Ekam Sat Vipra Bahudha Vadanti"

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इन्द्रं॑ मि॒त्रं वरु॑णम॒ग्निमा॑हु॒रथो॑ दि॒व्यः स सु॑प॒र्णो ग॒रुत्मा॑न् । एकं॒ सद्विप्रा॑ बहु॒धा व॑दन्त्य॒ग्निं य॒मं मा॑त॒रिश्वा॑नमाहुः ॥

~ Rigveda, 1.164.46

They called him Indra, Mitra, Varuṇa, Agni; and he is heavenly Garuda, who has beautiful wings. The truth is one, but the sages (or learned ones) call it by many names or describe him in many ways; they called him Agni, Yama, Mātariśvan.


𝗟𝗲𝘁'𝘀 𝗱𝗲𝗰𝗼𝗱𝗲 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝗙𝗮𝗺𝗼𝘂𝘀 𝘃𝗲𝗿𝘀𝗲 𝗼𝗳 𝗥𝗴𝘃𝗲𝗱𝗮 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗹𝗲𝘁'𝘀 𝘀𝗲𝗲 𝗪𝗵𝗼 𝗶𝘀 𝗶𝗻𝗱𝗶𝗰𝗮𝘁𝗲𝗱 𝗯𝘆 𝘁𝗵𝗲 𝘄𝗼𝗿𝗱 "𝗦𝗮𝘁" 𝗜𝗻 𝘁𝗵𝗶𝘀 𝘃𝗲𝗿𝘀𝗲 '𝗘𝗸𝗮𝗺 𝗦𝗮𝘁 𝗩𝗶𝗽𝗿𝗮 𝗕𝗮𝗵𝘂𝗱𝗵𝗮 𝗩𝗮𝗱𝗮𝗻𝘁𝗶' 𝘁𝗵𝗿𝗼𝘂𝗴𝗵 𝗱𝗶𝗿𝗲𝗰𝘁 𝗨𝗽𝗮-𝗯𝗿𝗮𝗵𝗺𝗮𝗻𝗮𝘀 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝘃𝗮𝗿𝗶𝗼𝘂𝘀 𝗦𝗵𝗮𝘀𝗵𝘁𝗿𝗮𝘀,

𝚃𝚑𝚎𝚛𝚎 𝚒𝚜 𝚎𝚡𝚊𝚌𝚝𝚕𝚢 𝚜𝚊𝚖𝚎 𝚟𝚎𝚛𝚜𝚎 (𝙳𝚒𝚛𝚎𝚌𝚝 𝚄𝚙𝚊-𝚋𝚛𝚊𝚑𝚖𝚊𝚗𝚊) 𝚒𝚗 𝚊𝚗𝚘𝚝𝚑𝚎𝚛 𝚠𝚊𝚢 𝚊𝚛𝚘𝚞𝚗𝚍 𝚒𝚗 𝙱𝚛𝚊𝚑𝚖𝚊 𝙿𝚞𝚛𝚊𝚗𝚊....

एक एवाद्वयः शंभुरिन्द्रमित्राग्निनामभिः।। वदन्ति बहुधा विप्रा भ्रान्तोपकृतिहेतवे।।

The one and secondless Shambhu Alone Is known By the Names of Indra, Mitra and Agni. For the sake of helping those who are confused, the brahmanas speak of them in different ways.

~ Brahma Purana 158.27


Ś𝗶𝘃𝗮 𝗔𝘁𝗵𝗮𝗿𝘃𝗮śī𝗿ṣ𝗮 𝗨𝗽𝗮𝗻𝗶𝘀𝗵𝗮𝗱 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗥𝘂𝗱𝗿𝗮𝗵𝗿𝗶𝗱𝗮𝘆𝗮 𝗨𝗽𝗮𝗻𝗶𝘀𝗵𝗮𝗱 𝗺𝗲𝗻𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻𝗲𝗱 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝘁 𝗶𝘁 𝗶𝘀 𝗟𝗼𝗿𝗱 𝗦𝗮𝗺𝗯 𝗦𝗮𝗱𝗮𝘀𝗵𝗶𝘃𝗮 𝘄𝗵𝗼 𝗶𝘀 𝗶𝗻 𝗳𝗼𝗿𝗺 𝗼𝗳 𝗘𝘃𝗲𝗿𝘆𝗼𝗻𝗲 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗘𝘃𝗲𝗿𝘆𝘁𝗵𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗶𝗻𝗰𝗹𝘂𝗱𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗕𝗿𝗮𝗵𝗺𝗮, 𝗩𝗶𝘀𝗵𝗻𝘂, 𝗦𝗸𝗮𝗻𝗱𝗮, 𝗜𝗻𝗱𝗿𝗮, 𝗩𝗮𝘆𝘂, 𝗟𝗮𝗸𝘀𝗵𝗺𝗶, 𝗦𝗮𝗿𝗮𝘀𝘄𝗮𝘁𝗶, 𝗬𝗮𝗺𝗮, 𝗞𝗮𝗮𝗹, 𝗠𝗿𝗶𝘁𝘆𝘂, 𝗦𝘂𝗿𝘆𝗮, 𝗖𝗵𝗮𝗻𝗱𝗿𝗮, 𝗔𝗴𝗻𝗶, 𝗘𝗮𝗿𝘁𝗵, 𝗕𝗵𝘂𝗵-𝗕𝗵𝘂𝘃𝗮𝗵-𝗦𝘄𝗮𝗵, 𝗣𝗹𝗮𝗻𝗲𝘁𝘀, 𝗦𝗸𝘆, 𝗠𝗮𝗹𝗲, 𝗙𝗲𝗺𝗮𝗹𝗲, 𝗦𝗮𝗸𝗮𝗹𝗮, 𝗡𝗶𝘀𝗸𝗮𝗹𝗮...𝗲𝘁𝗰 𝗲𝘁𝗰 𝗲𝘃𝗲𝗿𝘆 𝗹𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗻𝗼𝗻𝗹𝗶𝘃𝗶𝗻𝗴 𝗯𝗲𝗶𝗻𝗴𝘀.......

ॐ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यश्च ब्रह्मा तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ १॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यश्च विष्णुस्तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥२॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यश्च स्कन्दस्तस्मै वै नमो नमः ।। ३ ।। यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यश्चेन्द्रस्तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥४॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यश्चग्निस्तस्मै वै नमो नमः ।। ५ ।। यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यश्च वायुस्तस्मै वै नमो नमः ।। ६ ।। यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यश्च सूर्यस्तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ ७॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यश्च सोमस्तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ ८॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्ये चाष्टौ ग्रहास्तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ ९॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्ये चाष्टौ प्रतिग्रहास्तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ १०॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यच्च भूस्तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ ११ ॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यच्च भुवस्तस्मै वै नमो नमः॥ १२॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यच्च स्वस्तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ १३॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यच्च महस्तस्मै वै नमो नमः॥ १४॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्या च पृथिवी तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ १५॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यच्चान्तरिक्षं तस्मै वै नमो नमः ।। १६ । यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्या च द्यौस्तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ १७॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्याशापस्तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ १८॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यच्च तेजस्तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ १९॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यच्चाकाशं तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ २० ॥ यो वै रुद्रः स । भगवान्यश्च कालस्तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ २१॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यश्च यमस्तस्मै वै नमो नमः ।। २२ । यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यश्च मृत्युस्तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ २३॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यश्च मृत्युतस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ २४॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यच्चामृतं विश्वं तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ २५ ॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यच्च स्थूलं तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ २६ ॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यच्च सूक्ष्मं तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ २७॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यच्च शुक्लं तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ २८ ॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यच्च कृष्णं तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ २९॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यच्च कृत्स्नं तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ ३०॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यच्च सत्यं तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥ ३१॥ यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्यच्च सर्वं तस्मै वै नमो नमः ॥

~ Śiva Atharvaśīrṣa Upanishad, 2


रुद्रो नर उमा नारी तस्मै तस्यै नमो नमः ॥ रुद्रो ब्रह्मा उमा वाणी तस्मै तस्यै नमो नमः । रुद्रो विष्णुरुमा लक्ष्मीस्तस्मै तस्यै नमो नमः ॥ रुद्रः सूर्य उमा छाया तस्मै तस्यै नमो नमः । रुद्रः सोम उमा तारा तस्मै तस्यै नमो नमः ॥ रुद्रो दिवा उमा रात्रिस्तस्मै तस्यै नमो नमः । रुद्रो यज्ञ उमा वेदिस्तस्मै तस्यै नमो नमः ॥ रुद्रो वह्निरुमा स्वाहा तस्मै तस्यै नमो नमः । रुद्रो वेद उमा शास्तं तस्मै तस्यै नमो नमः ॥ रुद्रो वृक्ष उमा वल्ली तस्मै तस्यै नमो नमः । रुद्रो गन्ध उमा पुष्पं तस्मै तस्यै नमो नमः ॥ रुद्रोऽर्थ अक्षरः सोमा तस्मै तस्यै नमो नमः । रुद्रो लिङ्गमुमा पीठं तस्मै तस्यै नमो नमः ॥ सर्वदेवात्मकं रुद्रं नमस्कुर्यात्पृथक्पृथक् । एभिर्मन्त्रपदैरेव नमस्यामीशपार्वती ॥

~ Rudrahridaya Upanishad, 17-24


🍁 All names and forms belongs to none other than Lord Shiva.

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ब्रह्मविष्णुसुरेन्द्राणां रुद्रादित्याश्विनामपि । विश्वेषामपि देवानां वपुर्धारयते भव: ।।

~ Mahābhārata 13.14.140

Śrī Bhava assumes the names & forms of Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Indra, Rudra, Āditya, Aśvins and all other deities.


एष ब्रह्मैष विष्णुश्च एष देवो विराजते । एष भूतपतिर्देवो(व) एष सेतुर्विधारणः । एकमेव महादेवमिन्द्रमित्रादिभिः सुरैः । नामरूपगुणैश्चैव मायया मन्यते जनः ।

~ Siva-Rahasya Mahetihasa, 1st Amsha, Chapter 3

Mahadeva alone is known by the names of Brahma, Vishnu, Indra, Mitra, etc. by the gods. He alone is known thus with names and forms due to maayaa by people.


ईश्वर उवाच । शिवो महेश्वरश्चैव रुद्रो विष्णुः पितामहः । संसारवैद्यस्सर्वज्ञः परमात्मेति मुख्यतः ॥ नामाष्टकमिदं नित्यं शिवस्य प्रतिपादकम् ।

~ Śiva-Māhapurāṇa, Kailāsa-saṃhitā, 9.1-2a

Lord Śiva said:— 1-2. The following eight names indicate Śiva—Śiva, Maheśvara, Rudra, Viṣṇu, Pitāmaha, Saṃsāravaidya, Saravajña, Paramātman.


वेदवेद्यो हि सर्वज्ञो यत्संतानोऽखिलं जगत् । यं न कोपि हि वेदादौ वेदवेद्यः स एष वै ।। योनभिज्ञः सदाज्ञातः स सर्वज्ञोयमेव हि । यस्यैकमपि नो नाम पुंसा ज्ञेयं न केनचित् ।। सर्वेषां सर्वनामानि यस्य नामानि निश्चितम् । सोसौ हि सर्वदेशीयः सर्वेभ्यः सर्वसिद्धिदः ।।

~ Skanda-Māhapurāṇa, 4.66.107-109

He (Shiva) is the omniscient one to be known only through the Vedas. The entire universe is his progeny. He is one whom no one has known even at the outset. It is he who is (reputed to be) one who should be known through the Vedas. He alone is the omniscient one who always has remained misunderstood and unknowable. Not even a single name of his can be fully comprehended by any man. It is certain, he bears all the names of everyone as his names. He belongs to all climes and regions. He is bestower of all supernatural powers on all.


योगेश्वरः शरीराणि करोति विकरोति च ॥ मानाकृतिक्रियारूपनामवृत्तिः स्वलीलया ।

~ Vayu Purana, 5.32

The overlord of the Yoga (shiva) creates the bodies and even deforms them. Out of his sportiveness, he makes different forms, actions, names and functions in those different bodies.


नाम रूपं च भूतानां कृतानां च प्रपञ्चनम्। वेदशब्देभ्य एवाऽऽदौ निर्ममे स महेश्वरः ॥

~ Vayu Purana, 9.62

Names and forms of the beings and the manipulation of deeds that Maheśvara created is just from the word Veda or from the words of the Vedas.


वेदशब्देभ्य एवादी निर्म आर्षाणि चैव नामानि याश्च वेदेषु सृष्टयः ।।

~ Kurma Purana, 1.7.68

Initially Maheśvara created the names and forms of creatures as per the provisions of the Vedas. That unborn deity gave the names of the sages to those who were born at the close of his night.


ऋषीणां नामधेयानि याश्च वेदेषु सृष्टयः। नानारूपं च भूतानां कर्मणां च प्रवर्तनम् ॥ २५॥ वेदशब्देभ्य एवादी निर्मिमीते स ईश्वरः

~ Mahabharata, 12.232.25-26

"Indeed, the Iśvara, in the beginning, created all things from the words of the Vedas. Truly, the names of the Rishis, and all else that has been created, occur in the Vedas".


नाम रूपं च भूतानां कृतानां च प्रपञ्चनम् ॥ वेदशब्देभ्य एवादौ निर्ममे स महेश्वरः ।

~ Linga Purana, 1.70.257

The names and forms of the elements and their future development of the created ones were evolved by the great. lord shiva himself at the start itself through the words of the Vedas.


सर्वात्मकः शिवो व्यापि सर्वभावस्वरूपधृक् । विशेषतस्तत्र तीर्थे सर्वप्राण्यनुकम्पया ।।

~ Brahma Purana, 2.158.38

Shiva is all-pervading, and bearing the form and name of all beings. Especially in that holy place out of compassion for all living beings.


It is the Lord of Uma who must be meditated upon. After attaining him the good Yogins are not reborn. They are liberated. After meditating upon the excellent Brahman and the great Pradhana it is lord Siva who is the essence. As and when Sambhu assumes the forms of the immeasurable Mäyä for the welfare of the universe, you too assume forms and names befitting contact with him. O Mother, that is your chastity.

~ Brahma puran 2.75.24


तत्राऽऽवि सर्वमिदं तनुभिः सह एकाकी यचरत्येष सूर्योऽसौ चन्द्र उच्यते ॥

~ Vayu puran 27.39

All this universe is pervaded by these bodies and names of Rudra. The sun that moves about all alone is also known as 'Candra' (moon).


गीयते सर्वशक्त्यात्मा शूलपाणिर्महेश्वरः । एनमेके वदन्त्यग्निं नारायणमथापरे । इन्द्रमेके परे प्राणं ब्रह्माणमपरे जगुः । ब्रह्मविष्णवग्निवरुणाः सर्वे देवास्तथर्षयः । एकस्यैवाथ रुद्रस्य भेदास्ते परिकीर्त्तिताः । यं यं भेदं समाश्रित्य यजन्ति परमेश्वरम् ।
तत् तद् रूपं समास्थाय प्रददाति फलं शिवः ।

~ Kurma Purana, 2.46.34-36

Some call Agni as Isvara, others calls Narayana as such, Some call It Indra, Some call it Prana and others call it Brahma. Really Speaking, Brahma, Visnu, Agni, Varuna, all Devas as well as sages are glorified as variants of one same entity- Rudra.

In whatever forma devotee adores Paramesvara, Lord Siva Appears before him in the same form to bestow rewards on him.


मन्वन्तरेषु चैतेषु अतीतानागतेषु वै। तुल्याभिमानिनः सर्वे नामरूपैर्भवन्त्युत ॥

~ Kurma puran 1.30.55

There is a supreme deity in each manvantara of the past and future. Similar names and forms they all belongs to Changeless lord shiva.

🍁 So it's crystal clear that it's none other than Lord Shiva who is glorified through the verse Ekam Sat Vipra Bahudha Vadanti, Lord Shiva is only one but sages call him with various names....

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एक॑ ए॒व रु॒द्रो न द्वि॒तीया॑य तस्थे।

Rudra is indeed the only one. There is none beside him who can make him a second.

~Taittriya Samhita, 1st Khanda, 8th Praphataka.


ए एको जालवानीशत ईशनीभिः सर्वाँल्लोकानीशत ईशनीभिः । य एवैक उद्भवे सम्भवे च य एतद् विदुरमृतास्ते भवन्ति ॥

The one who casts his net, who rules over all the beings with His supreme powers, who rules all the worlds also with His supreme powers, who arises as one and happens to make things possible remaining as one, he who knows Him thus becomes immortal.

एको हि रुद्रो न द्वितीयाय तस्थुर्य इमांल्लोकानीशत ईशनीभिः। प्रत्यङ्जनांस्तिष्ठति सञ्चुकोचान्तकाले संसृज्य विश्वा भुवनानि गोपाः॥

~ Shvetashvatara Upanishad, 3.2

Rudra is truly one and only; for the knowers of Brahman do not admit the existence of a second, He alone rules all the worlds by His powers. He dwells as the inner Self of every living being. After having created all the worlds, He, their Protector, takes them back into Himself at the end of the time.


एको ह देवः प्रदिशो नु सर्वाः पूर्वो ह जातः स उ गर्भे अन्तः।। स एव जातः जनिष्यमाणः प्रत्यङ्जनास्तिष्ठति सर्वतोमुखः ।। एको रुद्रो न द्वितीयाय तस्मै य इमांल्लोकानीशत ईशनीभिः ।। प्रत्यङ्जनास्तिष्ठति संचुकोचान्तकाले संसृज्य विश्वा भुवनानि गोप्ता ।।

~ Atharvśirash Upanishad

This god is the one who pervades in all directions. He is the one who came earlier than every thing. He is the one who is in the womb. He is the one who is in all the creatures which have come out till now and all those who are going to be created in future. He is also the one who sees the inside but the one who has a face which looks outside. Rudra is one and only one. There is none second to him. He rules all worlds by his power.He pervades fully in all beings. He is the one who, at the time of deluge, absorbs all beings. He is the one who creates all beings and up keeps them.


एकम्ब्रह्मैवाद्वितीयं समस्तं सत्यंसत्यं नेह नानास्ति किञ्चित् । एको रुद्रो न द्वितीयोऽवतस्थे तस्मादेकन्त्वाम्प्रपद्ये महेशम् ॥

कर्ता हर्त्ता त्वं हि सर्वस्य शम्भो नानारूपेष्वेकरूपोऽप्यरूपः । यद्वत्प्रत्यग्धर्म एकोऽप्यनेकस्तस्मान्नान्यन्त्वां विनेशम्प्रपद्ये ॥

~ Śiva-Māhapurāṇa, śatarudrasaṃhitā, 13.42-43

The Brahman is alone without a second. It is true. Indeed there is no multitude of different things. Rudra is indeed the only one. There is none beside him who can make him a second. Hence I seek refuge in you, the sole great lord. O Śiva, you alone are the creator and annihilator of every thing. In the different forms you are of single form and formless. Just as the inner virtue is only one though it may seem to be many. Hence I do not resort to any one except you.


व्यास उवाच । एको रुद्रो न द्वितीयो यतस्तद्ब्रह्मैवैकं नेह नानास्ति किंचित् । यद्यप्यन्यः कोपि वा कुत्रचिद्वा व्याचष्टां तद्यस्य शक्तिर्मदग्रे ॥

Vyāsa said: Brahman alone is one. There are not many entities here. Hence Rudra is only one. There is none second to him. If there be anyone else anywhere, let him who has the capacity to do so, explain it to me.

~ Skand Puran, Kashi khand , 95. 56 / Vyāsāṣṭaka 1st verse


परब्रह्म स इशान एको रुद्रः स एव च स एकः स महारुद्रो विश्वं भूतं भविष्यति ।

Soura purana ch-45


तस्यैकस्य न कोप्यन्योस्त्यद्वितीयस्य शूलिनः । तदुदंतप्रवृत्त्यै च क्रियतामुद्यमो विभो ॥

~ Skandpuran 4.2.16.38

That Trident-bearing Lord is without a second; he has no one else. Hence, O lord, may effort be made to get some news about him.

          ॥ सर्वं शिवमयं जगत् ॥ 

Entire Universe is wholly Lord Shiva, Each and everything is Shiva Only.

1
  • Looks like you are also aware of Upapuranas. Can you answer to the question about Shiva's son, Dharma Sastha? Here the link
    – Boovanaes
    Mar 26 at 8:14

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