Why and How Ramanuja Rejected Nyāya Arguments for the Existence of God JONATHAN B. EDELMANN

(A) While certain features of the natural or organic world might resemble artifacts, can reason establish they are designed by one supreme designer?

1 Inference would suggest there are many designers and movers working together since all complex objects in this world are designed by groups of people, and all large objects are moved by many people working together. The physical body's creation is a group effort, involving a long ancestry, and their combined forces of their karmic contributions. 2 The earth looks as if it had multiple layers of creations and destructions, so perhaps there were and are many creators and destroyers, just as parts of large artifacts are created and destroyed at different times.

(B) If the world was designed by a supreme designer, what does it say about God?

1 To create an artifact, one must know about the material, the means to construct the artifact, and goals and purposes of the artifact. While human beings are unable to make organic forms (i.e. bodies that breath and digest), the creator of bodies (and mountains, planets, etc.) need not be omniscient - he or she only needs sufficient knowledge of the materials, means and goal, none of which entails omniscience. 2 Positing God as creator debases him and his abilities, suggesting he is just a glorified artisan with great but limited skill. Human creators create out of a desire for specific ends that are born out of karmic constraints, so if we take the analogy seriously then God must have karmic (=material) desires and goals as well.

(C) Even if there is a designer, how could he create the world?

1 If the design inference is sound, then the designer of the world must be embodied and use tools, since in this world objects are only created by embodied beings using tools - there are no cases of disembodied volition creating anything of which we know. 2 If God is embodied, then he has parts (e.g. hands, legs, etc.), and if he is eternally embodied, then composite objects could be eternal, then so could the world be eternal >and would not need a creator. If God is embodied, but only embodied intermittently, then how does he go from embodiedness to disembodiedness? He couldn't since it has already been established that mere volition isn't the cause of creation. Bibliography

• Brown, Cheever Mackenzie. 2012. Hindu perspectives on evolution: Darwin, dharma, and design. London: Routledge.

• Edelmann, Jonathan. 2006. "Modernity's Warfare in Life and Religion: A Meeting with Charles Darwin and the Bhagavata Purana." Journal of Vaishnava Studies, Spring 2005, pp. 113-26.


What is Nyaya's respondes to this?


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