The following passage is from this answer quoted from Agni Purana

An anuloma marriage is a marriage where the husband is from a higher class than the wife. The offspring of such a marriage belong to the mother’s class. A pratiloma marriage is a marriage where the wife is from a higher class than the husband. Chandalas were born this way from brahmana women, Sutas from kshatriya women, Devalas from vaishya women, Pukkashas from kshatriya women and Magadhas from vaishya women. Chandalas are executioners, Sutas charioteers, Devalas guards, Pukkashas hunters and Magadhas bards. Chandalas should live outside the villages and should not touch those belonging to any other class.

The passage clearly says that Chandalas are born due to pratiloma marriage by a Brahmana woman. A Brahmana woman can marry only a Brahmana man according to the scriptures.

But, is a Chandala born if, a Brahmana woman marries a man of any other varna? Or does it happen only if the Brahmana woman marries a Sudra man?

Are there any explicit mentions about the (classification or charactersitcs of) offsprings born of a Brahmana woman and a Sudra man?

  • I asked But, do Chandala born if Brahmana woman marries to any other varna? just for the completeness of the question. – hanugm Jun 16 at 6:43
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    All - all -questions about varna eventually have as their lowest common denominator have as their real question whether varna is determined by birth or by an individual's qualities. – Swami Vishwananda Jun 16 at 10:09
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    @SwamiVishwananda Both are there: Varna by birth and Varna by qualities. This question refers to the former one. – hanugm Jun 16 at 10:11

For a Sudra male and a Vaishya woman, their offspring is called Ayogavah. Sudra male and Kshatriya women creates a Kshatri offspring. A Sudra male and a Brahmin woman creates a Chandala offspring. So, a Chandala is created only out of the union of a Sudra man and a Brahmin woman.


Manu 10.12. From a Sudra are born an Ayogava, a Kshattri, and a Chandala, the lowest of men, by Vaisya, Kshatriya, and Brahmana) females, (sons who owe their origin to) a confusion of the castes.

The Manu Smriti mentions the following regarding the occupation, dwelling places of the Chandalas.

10.51. But the dwellings of Chandalas and Svapakas shall be outside the village, they must be made Apapatras, and their wealth (shall be) dogs and donkeys.

10.52. Their dress (shall be) the garments of the dead, (they shall eat) their food from broken dishes, black iron (shall be) their ornaments, and they must always wander from place to place

10.53. A man who fulfils a religious duty, shall not seek intercourse with them; their transactions (shall be) among themselves, and their marriages with their equals

10.54. Their food shall be given to them by others (than an Aryan giver) in a broken dish; at night they shall not walk about in villages and in towns.

10.55. By day they may go about for the purpose of their work, distinguished by marks at the king’s command, and they shall carry out the corpses (of persons) who have no relatives; that is a settled rule.

10.56. By the king’s order they shall always execute the criminals, in accordance with the law, and they shall take for themselves the clothes, the beds, and the ornaments of (such) criminals.

  • If you know any characteristics of Chandalas other than the ones mentioned in the question, please add at any time. – hanugm Jun 16 at 6:52
  • Those mentioned in the block quote? @hanugm – Rickross Jun 16 at 6:52
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    Okay .... @hanugm – Rickross Jun 16 at 6:54
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    Wow. Nobody actually does this, right? It's just an ancient religious text, isn't it? – Neil Jun 16 at 15:33
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    Does what?@Neil Yes its an ancient religious text that I'm quoting from. – Rickross Jun 16 at 17:00

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