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As we know Uttarayana is being celebrated as Makar Sankranti or Makara Sankramana when Sun enters Capricorn or Makara Rashi which approx falls on Jan 14, as 2021.

This is considered as Uttarayana. But this was fixed a long tiime ago and due to precession of equinoxes Sun starts moving North on Dec 21 instead of Jan 14.

So shouldn't we all celebrate Uttarayana punya kala on Dec 21 every year?

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    – The Destroyer
    Dec 24, 2021 at 12:51

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Yes. The word Ayana means a path and the suffix Uttara and Dakśiṇa are North and South Direction respectively. So Uttara-Ayana means the northward journey of the Sun. This starts around Dec21/22 when the southern latitude of Sun is at its lowest around 24deg South and ends around June21/22 when the Sun's latitude is around 24deg North. When the Sun goes from South to North it is Uttarāyaṇā and when it goes from South to North it is Dakśiṇāyaṇā.

Uttarāyaṇa used to take place in 1st Pada of Uttarāṣāḍhā ( End of Dhanur Rāśi ) around 2100 years ago and documented around the time of Varāhamihirā in the 1st century BCE. However texts like Vedaṅga Jyotiṣam has documented that Uttarāyaṇa happenned in Śrāviṣthā nakśatra which is in Kumbha Rāśi. Uttarāyaṇa will take place in each Rāśi for around 2250 years ( 1year = 360days ). Below is the image from the translation done by Dr K V Sarma of the Vedānga Jyotiṣam for Indian National Science academy.

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