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What is the really said of Brahman (supreme reality) is different vedic texts? As described in the bagvad gita that "their is a like a tree whose roots are upwards and it's branches are downwards the one who knows this tree is the knower of vedas" Now vedas knowledge has been found In upanishads, aranyankas and brahamanas but right books covering them are not available so if you all know the meaning and book then please help me

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Sorry, but there is no RIGHT BOOK. Please put Bhagavad Gita aside for a few minutes which we discuss Vedas as Vedas. So, here is a little background that might throw some light as to what you are seeking. You will get your answer in the 9th point but till then some basic facts to understand that point. So please read:

  • There are 4 Vedic Division (Rig, Yajur, Sama, Atharva). We all know this.
  • Each Veda has 4 sections: Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads.
  • Each Veda has many versions called Shakha (branches) like Physics Study has many branches (Atomic, Quantum, Thermodynamic). Like Katha Shaka, Kanva Shaka, Katyayana**, **Taittiriya, Śākala, Bāṣkala and many more. Hope we are clear till now.
  • Each Shakha is traditionally handed over within a family successive bloodline. It is said that once over 1180 Shakas were present but today we have around 14 that survived. Mathematically it means only 1.4% survived. Please take a moment and realize what has been lost due to our desert invaders and other natural calamities.
  • Each Shaka (School/branch/limb/recession) is a Sampradāyam by itself, meaning a WHOLE by itself, and so each Shaka has its own conceptual pinnacle (call it the ultimate philosophical concept). Each School/branch gives its own way to achieve the DIVINE SOMA and Amrta and realizes the DIVINE (Please read Rig Veda 8.48.3 to understand what I am referring to here)
  • In the mids of Forest Wilderness this philosophy later becomes the Aranyaka section of Veda and consequently Upanishads emerge when a student and master converse with each other. This shaka together becomes a Siddhāntam (specific SCHOOL of thought). Hope we are fine till now.
  • Many people on social media created fan clubs out of Vedic Divinities and Gurus and generalize it because of reading a single Siddhāntam (single school of thought), in the sense that they have a metric (measurement tool) to weigh other Sampradāyam. This is not how this Culture survived. This, My God, is bigger than yours comes from the west. Please realize this.
  • For example, take Mahanarayaopanishad (please don't evaluation it with others), it's just that, the method (Anukrama) used to derive the Rishi who composed it itself is Narayana Rishi.
  • What does the above mean? it means Each Rishi has reached the Brahman state of being (refer to Mandokya and Bhrid-Ary Upanishad). And in this "state of being" these Rishis gave us these Vedic homages. NO RISHI among all the RISHIS in the Vedas said "MY SUKTA IS CORRECT AND YOUR'S IS WRONG" they didn't say "MY SUKTA ON VISHNU IS HIGHEST AND OTHER SUKTAS ARE LOWER". Now, come to GITA, Sri Krishna did the same thing. He himself stood as the Parabrahma SWARUPAM and give the summary as GITA to Arjuna.
  • At this point the Conceptual Pinnacle (in the above example Narayana) becomes one with Whole Yagna Purusha and so “Whole” becomes "Brahm” of that respective Upanishad, and its respective Siddhāntam. So the Rishi is Brahman and the whole Yagan becomes Yajna:Purusha (Whole). *In this way, many Conceptual Pinnacles are named accordingly by their respective Anukrama viz its Rishi. Meaning each SHAKA is with its own Samhita + Brahmana + Aranyaka + Upanishad is WHOLE/COMPLETE/FULL/BRAHMAN. And Each RISHI is WHOLE/BRAHMAN.
  • For one SCHOOL/SHAKA or Yajna it is Viratas, for some its Manyu, or Vrātyas, or Satarudiyas or Adi-Purusha and Andhasha, Narayana and more. I know many are confused at this point, so please use the comments sections to ask. *Example: For those whose conceptual pinnacle is Vrātyas it becomes “Eka-Vrātya” similarly to those Shakas which concur with Rudra its “Eko-He-Rudra” for those who concur with Śataśirsarudra its “ Ekadevataya (the One Divinity), who is Kṣatra” for those who have Narayana its "Eko-hi-Narayana". So in this way, all Conceptual Pinnacles are “Whole/Purnam” with being Infinite State. It doesn't mean there are multiple infinities which are not possible. There is only one ocean called Veda, no matter where you touch that ocean it's the same ocean. Let me give another example, no matter where you take the water (from lake, river, sea, ocean, rain, or drainage) it's always H2O. This is why many Rishis in their atmanubhuti (transcendental state of realization Brahm) states gave their suktams, but they didn't behave like “my god is bigger than your false god”. This is why Adi Shankara too never played such games, you will know if you compare his Vishnusahasranama Bhashya or Shivanadalahiri or Soundarya Lahiri. He emulated all conceptual pinnacles in the same infinite states. Since he foresaw the loss of many Vedic Shakas, he safeguarded all their essence from their Upanishads as part of his Siddhantas. Hope this answers what you seek. 🙏
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You want to know what is said about Brahman in scriptures and what the great teachers have said about Brahman. I have given below a sample of statements about Brahman.

  1. "The eye does not go thither, nor speech, nor the mind. We do not know It; we do not understand how anyone can teach It. It is different from the known; It is above the unknown. Thus we have heard from the preceptors of old who taught It to us."

(Kena Upanishad I.3-4)

  1. "That which cannot be comprehended by the mind but by which the mind is cognized know that alone to be Brahman, and not this that people worship here."

(Kena Upanishad I.6)

  1. "That from which all speech with the mind turns away, not having reached it, knowing the bliss of that Brahman, man fears nothing."

(Taittirya Upanishad II.9)

  1. "He is never seen, but is the Seer; He is never heard, but is the Hearer; He is never thought of, but is the Thinker; He is never known, but is the knower. There is no other seer than He, there is no other hearer than He, there is no other thinker than He, there is no other knower than He. He is the Inner Controller - your own Self and immortal. All else but He is perishable."

(Brihadaranyaka Upanishad III.7.23)

Brahman described!

After saying that Brahman is not knowable, beyond the reach of our minds, the Upanishads describe Brahman,

  1. "This Self has entered into these bodies up to the very tips of the nails, as a razor lies hidden in its case, or as fire which sustains the world lies hidden in its source...."

(Brihadaranyaka Upanishad I.IV.7)

  1. "It has hands and feet everywhere, and eyes, heads and faces everywhere, and It is possessed of ears everywhere. It exists among all the creatures, pervading all. "

(Svetasvatara Upanishad 3.16)

  1. "He is without hands and feet, (and yet) moves and grasps; He sees, (though) without eyes; He hears (though) without ears. He knows whatever is to be known, and of Him there is no knower. They speak of Him as the first, the Supreme Person (Purusham mahantam). "

(Svetasvatara Upanishad 3.19)

  1. "You are the woman, You are the man, You are the boy, (and) You are the girl too. You are the old man tottering with a stick. Taking birth, You have Your faces everywhere. "

(Svetasvatara Upanishad 4.3)

  1. "You, indeed, are the blue bee; You indeed are the green parrot having red eyes; You indeed are possessed of lightning in Your womb. You indeed are the seasons and the seas. You indeed are without beginning; You exist as the Omnipresent, from whom have sprung all the worlds. "

(Svetasvatara Upanishad 4.4)

  1. "As from a fire kindled with wet fuel various [kinds of] smoke issue forth, even so, my dear, the Rig Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the Sama Veda, the Atharvangirasa, itihasa, purana, vidya (arts), Upanishads, slokas, sutras, anuvyakhyanas (elucidations), vyakhyanas (explanations), sacrfices, oblations in the fire, food, drink, this world, and all beings are all like the breath of the Infinite Reality. From this Supreme Self are all these, indeed, breathed forth."

(Brihadaranyaka Upanishad IV.V.11)

Brahman known through meditation

Verses 1 to 4 suggest that Brahman is unknowable to the ordinary human mind. Then how is it possible for Upanishads to describe Brahman (verses 5 to 10)? The answer is given in the following verses,

"His form does not stand within the range of the senses. No one perceives Him with the eye. Those who know Him through the faculty of intuition as thus seated in their heart, become immortal."

(Svetasvatara Upanishad Iv.20)

"The wise man relinquishes both joy and sorrow having realized, by means of meditation on the inner Self, that ancient effulgent One, hard to be seen, subtle, immanent, seated in the heart and residing within the body."

(Katha Upanishad I.2.12)

Brahman is silence, according to Sankara (c. 788-820 AD):

"'Sir,' said a student to his master, 'teach me the nature of Brahman.' The master did not reply. When he was asked a second and a third time, he replied: "I teach you, but you do not listen. His name is silence.'"

The Spiritual Heritage of India by Swami Prabhavananda

Here are some quotations discussing the nature of Brahman.

  1. The Upanishad also declares Brahman to be Consciousness alone.

The Upanishad also says that Brahman is pure consciousness, devoid of other aspects contrary to this, and without any distinguishing features, as in, “As a lump of salt is without interior or exterior, entire, and purely saline in taste, even so is the Self without interior or exterior, entire, and pure Intelligence alone” (Brhadaranyaka Upanishad IV.v.13), which means that the Self has no internal or external aspect apart from pure consciousness, Its nature being mere impartite consciousness without any interstices. Just as a lump of salt has the saline taste alone both inside and outside, and no other taste, so also is this Self.

Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sri Sankaracharya III.ii.16

  1. Moreover, the Vedas reveal this; likewise this is mentioned in the Smritis also.

Moreover, the Vedas reveal through a negation of other aspects that Brahman has no distinguishing feature, as for instance in, “Now therefore the description (of Brahman): ‘Not this, not this’” (Brhadaranyaka Upanishad II.iii.6), “That (Brahman) is surely different from the known; and, again, It is above the unknown” (Kena Upanishad I.4), “That Bliss of Brahman, failing to reach which, words turn back along with the mind” (Taittiriya Upanishad II.ix.1), and so on. And it is also known from the Vedic texts that Badhva being asked by Baskali, replied merely by not uttering a word, as stated in, “He (Baskali) said, ‘Teach me Brahman, sir.’ He (Badhva) became silent. When the question was repeated a second and a third time he said, ‘I have already spoken, but you cannot comprehend. That Self is Quiescence’ “. Similarly in the Smritis, the instruction is given through a negation of other things, as in, “I shall tell you of that which is to be known and by knowing which one attains immortality. The supreme Brahman is without any beginning. It can neither be called gross (visible) nor fine (invisible)” (Gita XIII.12), and so on. Similarly the Smriti mentions how Narayana in His cosmic form said to Narada, “O Narada, that you see me as possessed of all the (five divine) qualities of all elements, is only because of My Maya, called up by Myself. For else you should not understand Me thus.”

Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sri Sankaracharya III.ii.17

All the descriptions of Brahman given in the Upanishads (verses 5 to 10) are given to help us in our search for Brahman. In reality Brahman is not accessible either to human reason or to human mind. Even those who experience Brahman cannot describe their experience.

Special Forms

Brahman also maintains special forms for helping human seekers. The various deities like Siva, Vishnu, Devi, Ganesha etc are different names and forms of Brahman. In spite of these Devatas Hinduism is not polytheistic as is clear from the following passages:

"Know that this entire universe is under the control of one divine Being. The Veda that is in the soul.......regards the unity of various creatures. When a living creature realizes this unity in consequence of true knowledge, he is then said to attain to Brahman".

Mahabharata Santi Parva Section CCLXXX

" The Supreme Spirit hath three condition, In the form of Brahma, he is the Creator, and in the form of Vishnu he is the Preserver, and in his form as Rudra, he is the Destroyer of the Universe".

Mahabharata Vana Parva Section CCLXX

This one divine being is called Isvara and the multiple Deities are His forms. Brahman is called Isvara when thought of as relative to the universe.

Let me finish by quoting Sri Ramakrishna.

No one can say with finality that God is only 'this' and nothing else. He is formless and again He has forms. For the bhakta He assumes forms. But He is formless for the jnani, that is, for him who looks on the world as a mere dream. The bhakta feels that he is one entity and the world as another. Therefore God reveals Himself to him as a Person. But the jnani – the Vedantist, for instance - always reasons, applying the process of 'Not this, not this'. Through this discrimination he realizes, by his inner perception, that the ego and the universe are both illusory, like a dream. Then the jnani realizes Brahman in his own consciousness. He can not describe what Brahman is.

Do you know what I mean? Think of Brahman, Existence-Knowledge-Bliss Absolute, as a shoreless ocean. Through the cooling influence as it were, of the bhakta's love, the water has frozen at places into blocks of ice. In other words, God now and then assumes various forms for His lovers and reveals Himself to them as a Person. But with the rising of the sun of knowledge, the blocks of ice melt. Then one doesn't feel any more that God is a Person, nor does one see God's forms. What He is can not be described. Who will describe Him? He who would do so disappears. He cannot find his 'I' anymore.

The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna October 28, 1882

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