If a man deliberately remains lifelong unmarried is he committing a sin ?
Will he get punished for it in afterlife or in this life ?
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In Sanatana Dharma calibacy is said to be the one of the highest dharma. Let us see some verses to prove the same.:
Bhishma who had no other parallel on earth except Krishna in knowledge who could stand before him, such a great seer sang the glory of Brahmacharya to Yudhishthira in response to his query as follows.
"svakarmaniratānāṃ ca śūrāṇāṃ cāpi kiṃ phalam | satye ca kiṃ phalaṃ proktaṃ brahmacarye ca kiṃ phalam | brahmacaryaṃ dahed rājan sarvapāpāny upāsitam | brāhmaṇena viśeṣeṇa brāhmaṇo hy agir ucyate | pratyakṣaṃ ca tavāpy etad brāhmaṇeṣu tapasviṣu | bibheti hi yathā śakro brahma cāri pradharṣitaḥ | tad brahmacaryasya phalam ṛṣīṇām iha dṛśyate |" (MBH 13:74:5, 36-37) "Yudhishthira asked, "What are the fruits that have been declared to attach to the observance of purity and to the practice of Brahmacharya?" "Bhishma said, 'Listen now to me, O lord of Earth, as I expound to thee the merits of Brahmacharya. That man, who practices the vow of Brahmacharya from his birth to the time of his death, know, O king, has nothing unattainable! Many millions of Rishis are residing in the region of Brahma. All of them, while here, were devoted to Truth, and self-restrained and had their vital seed drawn up. The vow of Brahmacharya, O king, duly observed by a Brahmana, is sure to burn all his sins. The Brahmana is said to be a blazing fire. In those Brahmanas that are devoted to penances, the deity of fire becomes visible. If a Brahmacharin yields to wrath in consequence of any slight the chief of the deities himself trembles in fear. Even this is the visible fruit of the vow of Brahmacharya that is observed by the Rishis'."
Sanat-Sujata who is one among the kumaras (Brahma's mind born children), and who is foremost of the celestial sages and preceptor of even the celestials; let's see what this seer had said. This excerpt is from 'sanat-sujAtIya gItA' from Mahabharata which is a highly revered gItA; even Adi Shankara wrote commentary on this gItA. Note it very carefully that here Sanat-Sujata says that liberation or Brahmajnanam is attainable only by Brahmacharya.
"naitad brahma tvaramāṇena labhyaṃ; yan māṃ pṛcchasy abhihṛṣyasy atīva | avyaktavidyām abhidhāsye purāṇīṃ; buddhyā ca teṣāṃ brahmacaryeṇa siddhām |" (MBH 5:44:2) "Sanat-sujata said, 'That Brahman about which thou askest me with such joy is not to be attained soon. After (the senses have been restrained and) the will hath been merged in the pure intellect, the state that succeeds in one of utter absence of worldly thought. Even that is knowledge (leading to the attainment of Brahman). It is attainable only by practising Brahmacharya.'"
Now, carefully read the below conversation between Dhritarashtra and Sanat-Sujata where the former inquires how knowledge of Brahman and immortality (liberation from births and deaths) is attained, the latter answers that it is through Brahmacharya. This extract is also from Mahabharata (book 5 chapter 44).
"avyaktavidyām iti yat sanātanīṃ; bravīṣi tvaṃ brahmacaryeṇa siddhām | anārabhyā vasatīhārya kāle; kathaṃ brāhmaṇyam amṛtatvaṃ labheta |" (MBH 5:44:3) "Dhritarashtra said, 'Thou sayest that the knowledge of Brahman dwelleth of itself in the mind, being only discovered by Brahmacharya; that is dwelling in the mind, it requires for its manifestation no efforts (such as are necessary for work) being manifested (of itself) during the seeking (by means of Brahmacharya). How then is the immortality associated with the attainment of Brahman?'
"ācārya yonim iha ye praviśya; bhūtvā garbhaṃ brahmacaryaṃ caranti | ihaiva te śāstrakārā bhavanti; prahāya dehaṃ paramaṃ yānti yogam |" (MBH 5:44:6) "Sanat-sujata said, 'Though residing in and inherent to the mind, the knowledge of Brahman is still unmanifest. It is by the aid of the pure intellect and Brahmacharya that, that knowledge is made manifest. Indeed, having attained to that knowledge, Yogins forsake this world. It is always to be found among eminent preceptors. I shall now discourse to thee on that knowledge.'
Further, note what Sanat-Sujata proclaims!
"brahmaiva vidvāṃs tenābhyeti sarvaṃ; nānyaḥ panthā ayanāya vidyate |" (MBH 5:44:17b) "There is no other path (than Knowledge or the attainment of Brahman) leading to emancipation".
Sanat-Sujata furtehr states the qualities of a sinful persona dn the qualities of a righteous Brahmana. See what that seer has to say.
"He that regardeth sensual gratification as the end of life, he that is self-conceited, he that boasteth having made a gift, he that never spendeth, he that is weak in mind, he that is given to self-admiration, and he that hateth his own wife,--these seven are counted as wicked men of sinful habits. Righteousness, truth, asceticism, self-restraint, contentment, modesty, renunciation, love of others, gift, acquaintance with the scriptures, patience, and forgiveness,--these twelve are the practices of a Brahmana.". (MBH 5:45)
Sanat-Sujata also says the following.:
"Self-restraint, renunciation, and knowledge,--in these reside emancipation". (MBH 5:45)
Now, let's see a conversation between Narada and Vasudeva. Let's see whom Narada pays his homage. This extract is taken from Mahabharata (Book 13, chapter 32).
"samyag dadati ye ceṣṭān kṣāntā dāntā jitendriyāḥ | sasyaṃ dhanaṃ kṣitiṃ gāś ca tān namasyāmi yādava|" (MBH 13:32:10) Narada said, "I worship them that have become irresistible by studying the Vedas, that are eloquent in discoursing on the scriptures, that are observant of the vow of Brahmacharyya, and that are always devoted to the duties of officiating at the sacrifices of others and of teaching disciples".
"nirmamā niṣpratidvaṃdvā nirhrīkā niṣprayojanāḥ | ahiṃsā niratā ye ca ye ca satyavratā narāḥ | dāntāḥ śama parāś caiva tān namasyāmi keśava |" (MBH 13:32:18) "I bow unto them, O Kesava, that are conversant with Brahman, that are endued with knowledge of the Vedas, that are attentive to the aggregate of three, that are free from cupidity, and that are righteous in their behaviour".
Further in another chapter Bhishma says that through Brahmacharya one attains emancipation.
"yad idaṃ brahmaṇo rūpaṃ brahmacaryam iti smṛtam | paraṃ tat sarvabhūtebhyas tena yānti parāṃ gatim|" (MBH 12:207:7) "Bhishma said, 'That which is called Brahmacharya (religion of abstention or yoga) is regarded as the means of attaining to Brahma. That is the foremost of all religions. It is by the practice of that religion that one obtains the highest end (viz., Emancipation)'".
Further Mahabharata says,
"āśrameṣu ca sarveṣu dama eva viśiṣyate | yac ca teṣu phalaṃ dharme bhūyo dānte tad ucyate | anasūyā kṣamā śāntiḥ saṃtoṣaḥ priyavāditā | satyaṃ dānam anāyāso naiṣa mārgo durātmanām |" (MBH 213:8 and 17) "In all the (four) modes of life, the practice or self-restraint is distinguished above all other virtues. The fruits of self-restraint are much greater than those obtainable in all the modes of life. They, however, that are of wicked soul never betake themselves to the path represented by benevolence, forgiveness, tranquillity, contentment, sweetness of speech, truth, liberality and comfort. Their path consists of lust and wrath and cupidity and envy of others and boastfulness.".
Sage Bharadwaja also says that Brahmacharya is the highest virtue.:
"bharadvāja uvāca | yad etad bhavatābhihitaṃ sukhānāṃ paramāḥ striya iti tan na gṛhnīmaḥ | na hy eṣām ṛṣīṇāṃ mahati sthitānām aprāpyaiṣa guṇaviśeṣo na cainam abhilasanti | śrūyate ca bhagavāṃs trilokakṛd brahmā prabhv ekākī tiṣṭhati | brahmacārī na kāmasukheṣv ātmānam avadadhāti | api ca bhagavān viśveśvaromā patiḥ kāmam abhivartamānam anaṅgatvena śamam anayat | tasmād brūmo na mahātmabhir ayaṃ pratigṛhīto na tv eṣa tāvad viśiṣṭo guṇa iti naitad bhagavataḥ pratyemi |" (MBH 12:183:10) "Bharadwaja said, 'You have said that happiness (of sexual gratification) is the highest object, I do not comprehend this. This attribute of the soul that (you say) is so desirable is not sought by the Rishis who are regarded to be engaged in something promising a higher reward. It is heard that the Creator of the three worlds, viz., the puissant Brahman, lives alone, observant of the vow of Brahmacharya. He never devotes himself to the happiness obtainable from the gratification of desire. Also, the divine Master of the universe, the lord of Uma, reduced Kama (the deity of desire) to extinction. For this reason, we say that happiness is not acceptable to high-souled people. Nor does it appear to be a high attribute of the Soul".
Gandherva said to Arjuna, when Arjuna defeated him. Actually Gandhervas are magical warriors and it is nearly impossible to defeat them in war. However Arjuna could defeat them only because Arjuna was following Brahmacharya those days.
"brahmacaryaṃ paro dharmaḥ sa cāpi niyatas tvayi | yasmāt tasmād ahaṃ pārtha raṇe 'smin vijitas tvayā | yas tu syāt kṣatriyaḥ kaś cit kāmavṛttaḥ paraṃtapa | naktaṃ ca yudhi yudhyeta na sa jīvet kathaṃ cana |" (MBH 1:159:13-14) "The Brahmacharya is a very superior mode of life, and as thou art in that mode now, it is for this, O Partha, that I have been defeated by thee in battle. O chastiser of foes, if any married Kshatriya fight with us at night, he can never escape, with life"
Hope these many references are enough to understand how important is celibacy in the path of liberation!
Now, let me end this answer with the following beautiful verse.:
“R^itam satyaM paraM brahma purushha.n kR^ishhNapi~Ngalam.h |
uurdhvareta.n viruupaaksha.n vishvaruupaaya vai namo namaH |” (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.23.1)
“Supreme Brahman, the Absolute Righteousness (rita) and Truth (satyam), is the androgynous purusha the Umamaheshvara (or Ardhanareeshwara), dark blue and reddish brown in hue, absolutely chaste (having semen rised up) and possessing uneven eyes (three eyed) . Salutations to Him alone who is the Soul of the universe, or whose form is the universe”.
So, Parambrahma is said to be absolute Chaste.
I hope this clarifies your queries.