Can women work to earn a living or do they have to be dependent on their husbands for their sustenance ?
Since women are considered as Grih-Laxmi , I think working for them is sinful.
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As per Hinduism: Women are not even never allowed "to be on their own" in any place besides their home.
Thus, no question of "working (to earn a living)" arise.
A woman, as per smṛtis, is to be perpetually kept under care, guidance, and guardianship of either her father, husband, or sons. Shastras are of view - 'that a woman has no independent existence whatsoever.
Let's see some contextual verses regarding same:
Well, to start with, according to most Hindu scriptures women mustn't even step out of their house alone, let alone entertain any thought of working.
Here's what Vishnu Smṛti says:-
परगृहेष्वनभिगमनं ॥ २५.१० ॥
द्वारदेशगवाक्षेष्वनवस्थानं ॥ २५.११ ॥
सर्वकर्मस्वस्वतन्त्रता ॥ २५.१२ ॥
बाल्ययौवनवार्धकेष्वपि पितृभर्तृपुत्राधीनता । । २५.१३ ।।
- Not to resort to the houses of strangers (during the absence of her husband);
- Not to stand near the doorway or by the windows (of her house);
- Not to act by herself in any matter;
- To remain subject, in her infancy, to her father; in her youth, to her husband; and in her old age, to her sons.
न विद्यते पृथक् स्त्रीणां त्रिवर्गविधिसाधनम् ॥ ५
- Women have no separate right to the use of the means for the realization of the three-fold end, i.e,., virtue, wealth, and desires.
Thus, women have been forbidden by shastras to amass wealth independently.
Yājñavalkya Smṛti says same:
रक्षेत्कन्यां पिता विन्नां पतिः पुत्रास्तु वार्धके । अभावे ज्ञातयस्तेषां न स्वातन्त्र्यं क्वचित्स्त्रियाः । । १.८५ । ।
- When a maiden, her father ; when married, her husband ; and when old, her sons, should protect her. In their absence, the kinsmen (should take care of her.) The women are never independent.
This is what Vijñāneśvara says in his commentary (known as Mitākṣarā) on the above verse:
Besides, before marriage, " the father should protect the maiden from committing improper acts. After marriage the husband, in his absence, the sons, and in old age as well as in the absence of those mentioned above, the kinsmen should protect her. In the absence of the kinsmen, the king, on account of the following text of Āṅgīrasa: — "On the failure of both sides (the husband's and the father's relations), the king is the supporter and master of women." Therefore for women, there is never any independence.
In Manusmṛti Verse 5.154, Acharya Medhātithi in his manubhāṣya concludes -
" that women have been forbidden the freedom of life".
The same theme of 'women disallowed any kind of independence' is repeated in:-
As per Acharya - Sri Sri Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi MahaSwamiji, echoing the words of orthodox shastras, he comments:-
I'm giving a summary of his outlook on "working-women". One can read the full tirade here.
Women working in the modern times is not only against Hinduism's values, but also a grave injustice to unemployed men, since such women take their jobs, and therefore women must refrain from working,
Women working in the office is the source of several evils in society.Thus, by staying at home, according to swamiji, women will not lose their most precious possession i.e., feminity.
Nature has assigned the job of child- bearing to women. However much we fight for equality we cannot change this fact of life. It is natural dharma of women to care for children and to be Grahalakshmis.
As per major orthodox/traditional views, women aren't allowed to work to earn a living.
For modern/neo interpretation one may refer to views of Swami Vivekananda, etc., but explaining those views here is out of the scope of the present question.