In 39th verse, 17th Ullasah of Kaularnava Tantra, Shiva defines Purana to divine mother:

पुण्यपापादिकथनादाक्षसादिनिवारणात् ।
नवभक्त्यादिजननात् पुराण इति कथ्यते ।। ३६।।

Purana: Because it tells of merit and demerit (punyapapa ). because it dispels evil beings like rākṣasas, and because it generates ninefold devotion (navabhakti ) and the like, it is called purana.।।39।।

What is ninefold devotion here, he is talking about?

  • See this: wisdomlib.org/definition/navavidhabhakti
    – Rickross
    Commented Feb 27, 2022 at 12:40
  • The commentator of the Kularnava Tantram copy that I have explains what are the Navavidha Bhaktis under the verse. Something that is mostly talked about in (Vaishnava) Puranas.
    – Rickross
    Commented Feb 27, 2022 at 12:42
  • @Rickross seems right. You may post an answer with relevant verses in referenced sources.
    – TheLittleNaruto
    Commented Feb 27, 2022 at 12:43
  • @Rickross ...wait! Do you mean this ninefold devotion could be later addition and not really part of Kaularnava?
    – TheLittleNaruto
    Commented Feb 27, 2022 at 12:45
  • No I don't mean that .. I have used this verse earlier to show that Puranas are basically Bhakti Mulak scriptures.
    – Rickross
    Commented Feb 27, 2022 at 12:46

1 Answer 1


The Navavidha Bhakti are nine types of devotional services. It is usually referred to in connection with Lord Vishnu only.

Mentioned in the Bhagavata Purana 7.5.23-24:

श्रीप्रह्राद उवाच श्रवणं कीर्तनं विष्णो: स्मरणं पादसेवनम् ।
अर्चनं वन्दनं दास्यं सख्यमात्मनिवेदनम् ॥ २३ ॥
इति पुंसार्पिता विष्णौ भक्तिश्चेन्नवलक्षणा ।
क्रियेत भगवत्यद्धा तन्मन्येऽधीतमुत्तमम् ॥ २४ ॥

śrī-prahrāda uvāca

śravaṇaṁ kīrtanaṁ viṣṇoḥ
smaraṇaṁ pāda-sevanam
arcanaṁ vandanaṁ dāsyaṁ
sakhyam ātma-nivedanam
iti puṁsārpitā viṣṇau
bhaktiś cen nava-lakṣaṇā
kriyeta bhagavaty addhā
tan manye ’dhītam uttamam


śrī-prahrādaḥ uvāca — Prahlāda Mahārāja said; śravaṇam — hearing; kīrtanam — chanting; viṣṇoḥ — of Lord Viṣṇu (not anyone else); smaraṇam — remembering; pāda-sevanam — serving the feet; arcanam — offering worship (with ṣoḍaśopacāra, the sixteen kinds of paraphernalia); vandanam — offering prayers; dāsyam — becoming the servant; sakhyam — becoming the best friend; ātma-nivedanam — surrendering everything, whatever one has; iti — thus; puṁsā arpitā — offered by the devotee; viṣṇau — unto Lord Viṣṇu (not to anyone else); bhaktiḥ — devotional service; cet — if; nava-lakṣaṇā — possessing nine different processes; kriyeta — one should perform; bhagavati — unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; addhā — directly or completely; tat — that; manye — I consider; adhītam — learning; uttamam — topmost.


Prahlāda Mahārāja said: Hearing and chanting about the transcendental holy name, form, qualities, paraphernalia and pastimes of Lord Viṣṇu, remembering them, serving the lotus feet of the Lord, offering the Lord respectful worship with sixteen types of paraphernalia, offering prayers to the Lord, becoming His servant, considering the Lord one’s best friend, and surrendering everything unto Him (in other words, serving Him with the body, mind and words) — these nine processes are accepted as pure devotional service. One who has dedicated his life to the service of Kṛṣṇa through these nine methods should be understood to be the most learned person, for he has acquired complete knowledge.

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