The Garga Samhita describes the battle between Kamsa and the Devas in its First Canto, Chapter 7.
According to this narration, after Kamsa had acquired the friendship of all the asuras such as Narakasura, Bana, Baka, Agha, Keshi, Pralamba, et al, he led them on a conquest of Svargaloka.
canura-mushtikarishta- shala-toshala-keshibhih pralambena bakenapi dvividena samavritah
trinavartagha-kutaish ca bhauma-banakhya-shambaraih vyoma-dhenuka-vatsaish ca rurudhe so 'maravatim
Aided by Canura, Mushtika, Arishta, Shala, Toshala, Keshi, Pralamba,
Baka, Dvivida, Trinavarta, Agha, Kuta, Narakasura, Bana, Shambara,
Vyoma, Dhenuka, and Vatsa, he besieged the city of Aamaravati.
kamsadin agatan drittva shakro devadhipah svarat sarvair deva-ganaih
sardham yoddhum kruddho viniryayau
Seeing the demons headed by Kamsa had come, Indra, the sovereign king
of the demigods became angry and, accompanied by a great host of
demigods, went to fight with them.
The battle is described in great detail, followed by the surrender and fleeing of the devas, in concurrence with the Vishnu Purana quotation of Kamsa.
grihitva vaishnavam capam sajjam kritvatha daitya-rat devan vidravayam
asa banaughaish ca dhanuh-svanaih
Taking the bow of Lord Vishnu and stringing it, with a flood of arrows
accompanied by the twanging sound of the bow, the demon-king Kamsa
made the demigods flee.
tatah suras tena nihanyamana vidudruvur dina-dhiyo disham te kecid
rane mukta-shikha babhuvur bhitah sma ittham yudhi vadinas te
As Kamsa was attacking and killing them, the dispirited demigods fled
in all directions. Some, their helmets lost, screamed in terror.
kecit tatha pranjalayo 'ti-dina-vat sannyasta-shastra yudhi
mukta-kacchakah sthatum rane kamsa-nri-deva-sammukhe gatepsitah kecid
Some, dropping their weapons and armor, humbly surrendered with folded
hands. Others, very troubled, had lost all desire to stand before King
Though not explicitly named, one can understand that Indra being the chief of the devas too would have similarly fled the battle along with the rest of the army, and this would tally with the fact that the devas themselves accompany Bhudevi to Shvetadvipa to request Bhagavan's protection, since they too would have been subject to the torture of the asuras, here led by Kamsa.
This fact is further confirmed in the Bhagavata Purana, in the Tenth Canto, Chapter Four, which is the equivalent of the Vishnu Purana Chapter (5.4) quoted in the question. Here the various asuras recount the above battle of Kamsa with the devas, and describe nearly the same account.
Text 32: The demigods always fear the sound of your bowstring. They
are constantly in anxiety, afraid of fighting. Therefore, what can
they do by their endeavors to harm you?
Text 33: While being pierced
by your arrows, which you discharged on all sides, some of them, who
were injured by the multitude of arrows but who desired to live, fled
the battlefield, intent on escaping.
Text 34: Defeated and bereft of
all weapons, some of the demigods gave up fighting and praised you
with folded hands, and some of them, appearing before you with
loosened garments and hair, said, “O lord, we are very much afraid of
Text 35: When the demigods are bereft of their chariots, when
they forget how to use weapons, when they are fearful or attached to
something other than fighting, or when their bows are broken and they
have thus lost the ability to fight, Your Majesty does not kill them.
Thus, the battle between Kamsa and the devas is described primarily in the above two texts in support of the description of Vishnu Purana, and may have been one of the final triggers for the advent of Lord Krsna's Avatara.