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For example, is the Sun, the white sphere that we see in the sky, is it the body, or at least a body, of the Sun God, Surya? And is this true of the Moon and the other planets, those being the bodies of their associated Gods?

Is there any scripture or scholars using this language in this way, calling the planets the bodies of the Gods associated with them?

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My answer will be partial and non-dual.

About Sun.:

"He said to him, 'Thou art Îsâna (the Ruler).' And because he gave him that name, the Sun became suchlike, for Îsâna is the Sun, since the Sun rules over this All. He said, 'So great indeed I am: give me no other name after that!' (Shatapatha Brahmana 6:1:3.17).

Then, [worship of the effulgent being in the sun]: The white glow of the sun is sā, and the dark bluish-black glow is ama. These two together make up the word Sama.There is a deity within the orb of the sun, who is seen by the yogis. His whole body glitters like gold, even to his toe-nails. He has a bright golden beard and bright golden hair. (Chandogya Upanishad 1.6.6).

𝗕𝗿𝗮𝗵𝗺𝗮 𝘀𝘂𝘁𝗿𝗮 𝗯𝗵𝗮𝘀𝗵𝘆𝗮 𝗼𝗳 𝗔𝗱𝗶 𝗦𝗵𝗮𝗻𝗸𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗰𝗵𝗮𝗿𝘆𝗮 𝟭:𝟮-𝟮6.:

It is said that vaishvanara is not supreme nirguna brahman as he possesses gunas being called namely as 'Vishwa' & ‘Narah', the universal cosmic being, the Vedanta also says Brahman has golden beard (Ch. Up 1.6.6) being meditated upon by yogis, that doesn't mean he's fixed to an abstract form. Objection: The ordinary meaning of ‘Vaisvanara’ is fire and the Sruti also savs that it is seated inside: “He who knows this Vaisvanara abiding within man” (Sat. Br. 10. 6. 1. 11), which applies to the gastric fire only. Hence it alone, and not Brahman, is referred to in the text under discussion? . The Sutra refutes this objection firstly because the scripture here teaches the worship of Brahman in the gastric fire by way of meditation (), even as in the passage, “Let a man meditate on the mind as Brahman” (Chh. 3. 18. 1), Secondly because the gastric fire cannot have heaven for its head, and so on. Thirdly because Vaisvanara is conceived as a person by the Vajasaneyins : “This Vaisvanara is a person” etc. (Sat, Br. 10. 6. 1. 11). Hence ‘Vaisvanara’ here refers to Brahman, which is all-pervading and can also be conceived of as a Person 𝗵𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲 𝗣𝗮𝗿𝗮𝗺𝗲𝘀𝗵𝘃𝗮𝗿𝗮 𝗮𝗹𝗼𝗻𝗲 𝗶𝘀 𝘀𝘂𝗽𝗿𝗲𝗺𝗲 𝗮𝗯𝘀𝗼𝗹𝘂𝘁𝗲.

Shankara Brahma Sutra Bhashyam 1.2.32 about Nirguna Parmeshwara Vaishvanara states.:

Moreover Jabalas (Upanishad) speak about the supreme brahman Parameshvara as the supreme Lord who resides between interstice of the head and chin of the universal conscious . But who is parameshvara , he's the Avimuka of Varanasi ! Thus I'm he the Avimuka ( Sovimuktha ) of Varanasi (Kashi), What is Varana ? and what is nasi ? Varana refers to the illusory attributes that one possesses and nasi refers to the destruction of it . He's the supreme atman , the eternal reality , the only one who is infinite , hence Parameshvara ( Shiva ) alone is Vaishvanara.

Salutations again and again to the Golden armed, to the the golden hued One, whose form is resplendent like Gold, who is the Lord of Gold, who is the Lord of Ambika, of Uma, who is the Lord of Pashus”~ (Taittiriya Aranyaka 10.22.1).

Rig Veda Khilani Sri Shiva Sankalpa Shuktam.:

9. I know that great Puruṣa has the colour of the Sun and above darkness; the wise one sees his womb, the origin of all (or the wise men do not know of his origin); may my mind aspire towards Lord Śiva (or) Auspicious Śiva thoughts.

16. He is of the solar hue, burning with ascetic splendour, that which we see in the caves (the spiritual heart or Ātma) as we are born; It is of the Śiva-form, risen from Lord Śiva; the temple (or house) of Lord Śiva; may my mind aspire towards Lord Śiva (or) Auspicious Śiva thoughts.

Now he who is called bharga is he who is placed in yonder Aditya, or he who is the pupil in the eye. And he is so called, because his going (gati) is by rays (bhabhih); or because he parches (bhargayati) and makes the world to shrivel up. Rudra is called Bharga, thus say the knower of Brahman. (Maitrayani Aranyaka 6.7).

Meaning: - I know the great Purusha (Rudra), who is having sun like luster and is beyond darkness. Only by knowing him one overcomes death, there is no other way to supreme goal. (Svetasvatara Upanishad 3:08).

When there is complete absence of the darkness of ignorance, then what is experienced is neither day nor night; neither existence or non-existence; the Supreme Lord Shiva alone exists as pure; that is indestructible; that is adorable light and the deity of even Savitar (Sun) himself; from that this ancient wisdom proceeded all over the world”. (Shvetashvatara Upanishad 4.18).

“This Sun who is copper-red when he arises, then golden-yellow, this highly auspicious and beneficent one is truly Rudra. These other Rudras who are quartered round about in all directions of this earth, may I ward off their anger by my praise”. (Yajurveda Sri Rudram – Anuvaka -1).

“The black-throated Rudra who has assumed the form of the sun that glows red when rising. Him the cowherds, the women carrying water, and all the creatures behold. He, who is seen by all, let Him send happiness to us”. (Yajurveda Sri Rudram – Anuvaka -1) .

Commentary of sAyaNAchArya.:

“That Rudra whose throat is blue due to bearing the kAlakUTa poison, He only being distinctly reddish in color, being present in the orb of the sun, moves to achieve the rising and setting functions. The objective of Rudra's assuming the role of being in the Sun's orb is thus stated. Moreover, the cowherds who are without purifying ceremonies (saMskAras) of the vedas, too see Him, the Rudra of the form of Aditya in the solar orb. The women who carry water (in pots) too see Him. All beings, including animals such as cows, buffalos, etc., see Rudra who is in the form of Aditya, situated in the solar orb. Rudra assumes the form of Aditya just so that He can grant everyone a vision (darshan) of Himself. Only those who have known the Vedas, not others, can see the form of Rudra as He lives in KailAsa and other places, not others. May such Rudra, seen by us (in the form of Aditya), make us happy.”.

Adi Shankaracharya in his Prashna Upanishad bhashya 2.9.:

Oh Supreme Lord Parameshvara, you in the form of Rudra is the ultimate destroyer who brings dissolution at the end, you are also the sustainer, you in the form of Sun rise and set everyday."

Same can be said for Moon and Earth also.:

He said to him, 'Thou art Paśupati.' And because he gave him that name, the plants became suchlike, for Paśupati is the plants (signifies earth): hence when cattle (paśu) get plants, then they play the master (patīy). He said, 'Surely, I am mightier than that: give me yet a name!' (Shatapatha Brahmana 6.1.3.12).

He said to him, 'Thou art Mahān Devaḥ (the Great God).' And because he gave him that name, the moon became suchlike, for the moon is Prajāpati, and Prajāpati is the Great God. He said, 'Surely, I am mightier than that: give me yet a name!' (Shatapatha Brahmana 6.1.3.16).

So, it might applied to the other Astrological Planets also.

Conclusion.: In my opinion, the person sitting inside the orb is the real form and the orb itself is the halo or divinity of that person.

“The sun does not shine there, nor the moon and the stars, nor these lightnings, and much less this fire. When he (Rudra) shines, everything shines after him; by his light all this is illuminated”. (Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:14).

I hope this clarifies your queries.

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