They are different, but all praise Shiva and can be found in texts associated with the Yajur Veda.
The Satarudriya mantra itself comes from the Yajur Veda, but the Shiva Purana explains that it helps when fighting fever.
This Dhārā worship is very efficacious in delirium due to fever. At that time Śatarudriya mantra, Rudraikādaśa mantra, Rudrajāpya mantra, Puruṣa Sūkta, Ṣaḍaṅga mantra, Mahāmṛtyuñjaya mantra, Gāyatrī, names ending with Namaḥ and beginning with Praṇava or Āgama mantra shall be repeated.
The Dhārā worship is very excellent in regard to flourishing series of pleasures.
[Shiva Purana 2.1.14]
The Satarudriya comes from the Vajasaneya section of the Yajur Veda; you can read the relevant part here.
The Sri Rudram comes from the Taittiriya Samhita of the Yajur Veda (Chapter 4), and though there isn't much information contained in the texts about when it's to be said, the content of the mantra itself asks for forgiveness (during Namakam) and for the fulfillment of wishes (during Chamakam). You'd presumably use it when you are looking for one of those.
Here is a pdf to read the original + translation.
The Rudrashtadhyayi also comes from the Yajur Veda, here is a pdf to read it online in Devanagari. Again, not much information about when to say it, but it's mostly lines praising Shiva and a few that ask for one's descendants to prosper.
The Rudra Suktam can be found in both the Rig Veda and the Yajur Veda. If recited daily in the morning, it is said to offer health and comfort. You can find it online in Hindi here.