Apparently, Sankara cites the Rig Vedic Purusha Sukta while commenting about the caste system advocated in the Bhagavad Gita.

But since the Vedas are regarded as apara vidya in comparison to the Upanishads, do any of Isha, Kena, Katha, Prashna, Mundaka, Mandukya, Tattiriya, Aitareya, Chhandogya and Brihadaranyaka Upanishads mention or advocate the caste system?

By "unequivocally" I mean ONLY advocate the traditional caste hierarchy (by birth) Brahmin > Kshatriya > Vaishya > Sudra and not allow for exceptions.

1 Answer 1


By the looks of it, yes.

Chandogya Upanishad 5.10.7

Those who are distinguished by good behavior here will quickly reach the auspicious womb - the womb of a brahmana, or the womb of a ksatriya, or the womb of a vaishya. Those who behave badly here will quickly reach the evil womb - the womb of a dog, or the womb of a pig, or the womb of a candala.

  • I upvoted, but also modified the question. @SureshJikar
    – S K
    Commented Aug 7, 2023 at 14:14

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