Consider this question as a sequel to this question: Advaita Vedanta Gitas

Advaita Vedanta as an interpretation of Vedanta is one of the oldest. Consider this question as a comprehensive list of all the Advaita Vedanta proponents and scholars. Here are some of the few, please let me know if there is someone I've missed someone here and enlighten the community about their identity and work with them too.

  1. Ashtavakra [Era of Ramayana]: (Guru of King Janaka)

You are Self—the Solitary Witness.

You are perfect, all-pervading, One.

You are free, desireless, forever still.

The universe is but a seeming in You.

~ Ashtavakra Gita 1.12

  1. Lord Rama [Ramayana]:

Our inveterate enemy of egoism, has (like a magician) spread about us the enchantments of our wives, friends and children, whose spells it is hard to break.

As soon as the (impression of the) word (ego) is effaced from the mind, all our anxieties and troubles are wiped out of it.

  1. Sage Vasishtha [Ramayana]

We see sometimes something substantial arising from the unsubstantial, as we arrive to the substantial good of divine presence, by means of the unsubstantial meditation of his negative attributes (that he is neither this nor that nor such and such (neti-neti-iti sruti).

  1. Sri Krishna [Mahabharata]: (He talks about Janaka who is the student of Ashtavakra in #1 in Bhagavad Gita).

When the mind becomes free from all desires and passions, then only the idea of duality ceases. When there arises that state of Advaita feeling [all in One and One in all], there dwells the Supreme Foot of Brahman.

As a hungry person simply wastes his energy in vain when he strikes the air with blows, so too a reader of the Vedas and other shastras simply wastes his time and energy if, notwithstanding his study, he fails to realize “I am Brahman.“

  • Uttara Gita: II.46-47
  1. Sage Dattatreya [Unknown era] (Called as an incarnation of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva in one/Father of modern Tantra.)

I was not born nor have I death. I have no action, good or evil. I am Brahman, stainless, without qualities. How can there be bondage or liberation for me?

  • Avadhoota Gita (1.59)

*Lord Parshurama was a student of Sage Dattatreya.

  1. Prahlada [Unknown] (Mentioned along with Narshima Avatar in Puranas.)

I glorify the supreme deity Vishńu, the universal witness, who seated internally, beholds the good and ill of all. Glory to that Vishńu from whom this world is not distinct. May he, ever to be meditated upon as the beginning of the universe, have compassion upon me: may he, the supporter of all, in whom every thing is warped and woven, undecaying, imperishable, have compassion upon me. Glory, again and again, to that being to whom all returns, from whom all proceeds; who is all, and in whom all things are: to him whom I also am; for he is every where; and through whom all things are from me. I am all things: all things are in me, who am everlasting. I am undecayable, ever enduring, the receptacle of the spirit of the supreme. Brahma is my name; the supreme soul, that is before all things, that is after the end of all.

Hence, these are some of the very few figures who have supported Advaitic doctrines in Hinduism. Is there any chance for other revered sages, gods, and incarnations to support the non-dualistic ideals of Advaita Vedanta? Since my previous question: Advaita Vedanta Gitas was missing out on some of the non-gita categories of work or ideas of the sages, this final question can be used to include them all.

PS - Gautama Buddha propounded the idea of Self [and different levels of self - changing and unchanging]. The very idea of this is very similar to Advaita in practice but has some important philosophical differences (no meditator during meditation) as pointed out by pioneers such as Adi Shankaracharya and Gaudapada, but such philosophical differences might not be a hurdle in a practice, so on a soft note, one can include Gautama Buddha here too - noting a different philosophy as it still supports the idea of non-duality.

  • In view of the fact, Advaita sampradaya pre-existed , Shankaracharya is known to be a prominent exponent of Advaita vedanta .A Western indologist/prof. Witzel , credits Rishi Yajnavalkya to be an early proponent of Advaita ,also for having coined the term Advaita..Not sure if this opinion of prof.Witzel would tally with traditionalists.. If it is a practice to use propound and expound interchangeably , then it is only a matter of connotation.
    – Athrey
    Commented Oct 22, 2023 at 10:54
  • @Athrey If possible you can write an answer with some work of Sage Yajnavalkya, referencing Witzel. That'd definitely work.
    – user29449
    Commented Oct 22, 2023 at 13:12
  • Dattatreya, Kapila, Madalasa, Narada, etc so many names can be found in Puranas Commented Oct 22, 2023 at 21:14
  • @SophieClad Someone would need to compile their works in Advaita (or evidence) here IF they have any and ensure they don't contradict to other smiritis.
    – user29449
    Commented Oct 23, 2023 at 6:05
  • @AbhasKumarSinha when i read them all i see them saying is realize that you are pure consciousness Commented Oct 23, 2023 at 17:11

5 Answers 5


Within as well as without the vast corpus of Puranas There are several sages , gods and mahatmans who have held non-dualistic ideals. A small selection is listed in the below answer-

  • Veda Vyasa

In the Vayu Purana, Vedavyasa states that the alleged distinction between Isvara, Jeeva and Brahman has been completely refuted in his Brahma sutras.

Vayu Purana II.42.22:-

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In his Bhakti Sutras, Shri Shandilya ji presents Kshyapa and Badarayana’s(Vyasa's) views before stating his own. While doing so, he describes Bhagavan Badarayana as an Abedha-vaadi. The earliest commentary on the Bhakti sutras by Swapneshwara also clarifes that Bhagavan Badarayana is an Advaitin. This favours the position of Advaita Vedanta which professes Advaita as Vyasabhimata siddhanta.

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  • Sage Lomasa

Has explicitly Accepted that The Jagat(world) is Mithya and it posseses only apparent reality. Something which Advaita alone accepts.

स्मरन्विलसितं मिथ्या सत्याभासमिदं जगत्॥ अविद्यामयमित्येवं ज्ञात्वा मूकत्वमास्थितः॥ १२.३७ ॥

Being aware (of the fact) that this universe is the manifestation of Avidyā, that it is mithya and that it has only an apparent reality and after realizing that this universe is the outcome of Avidyā I adopted silence.

~ Skanda Purana, Mahesvara khanda, Kaumarika Khanda, Chapter 12.

  • Yajnavalkya

Garuda Purana states that he meditated upon vishnu in Advaita-bhaavna (i.e Vasudevoham)

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Garuda Purana I.92

  • Charaka

Charaka Maharishi accepts / describes the Atman as 'Sarvagata' and 'Vibhu' (omnipresent). This is admitted only in Advaita. All non-advaitic schools hold the Atman to be anu (atomic).

Charaka Samhita, Sarira-sthana , chapter 1

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The idea of Moksha, As described by Charaka maharsi too is very similar to the one admitted in Advaita, where one attains identification with brahman and sarvatma-bhava

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Charaka samhita, Sarira-sthana chapter 5

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  • Lord Hayagreeva

The Following upadesha is Given by Lord Hayagreeva to Sage Agastya.

देहो देवालयः प्रोक्तो जीव एव महेश्वरः । त्यजेदज्ञाननिर्माल्यं सोहंभावेन योजयेत् ॥ ३,४३.५३ ॥ तुषेण बद्धो व्रीहिः स्यात्तुषाभावे तु तण्डुलः । पाशबद्धः स्मृतो जीवः पाशमुक्तो महेश्वरः ॥ ३,४३.५४ ॥

The physical body itself is said to be a temple. The individual soul (himself) is Maheśvara (the great deity installed therein). One should abandon the Nirmālya (remnants of worship) of ignorance and unify souls with the concept “I am he”. When it is covered in the husk, it is paddy. In the absence of husk, it is rice grain. The soul bound by the noose (of senses) is remembered as the Jīva (Individual Soul). Freed from the bondage, It is Maheśvara (Supreme Lord).

~ Brahmanda PurAna, LalitopAkhyAna, Chapter 43

  • Chaturmukha BrahmA

Chaturmukha Brahma says this to the devata-s:

विशुद्धज्ञानिनां देवा निष्ठाऽप्यद्वैतगोचरा ।

तथाऽपि परमाद्वैतं नैव वाञ्छन्ति मानवाः ॥ ४५॥

Those who possess Visuddha-jnana are devoted to Advaita.

~ Suta Samhita, Brahma Gita , Chapter 9

  • Agni

अग्निरुवाच ब्रह्मज्ञानं प्रवक्ष्यामि संसाराज्ञानमुक्तये । अयमात्मा परं ब्रह्म अहमस्मीति मुच्यते ।। ३७७.१ ।।

Agni deva said: I shall describe the knowledge about Brahman [i.e., brahmajñāna] for the sake of getting released from the ignorance of mundane existence. A person gets released (by constantly thinking), “I, this soul, is verily the Supreme Brahman.

~ Agni-Purana , Chapter 377

  • Yama

पौनःपुन्येन तत्रैव विषयेष्वेव धारणा । ध्यानं स्मृतं समाधिस्तु अहं ब्रह्मात्मसंस्थितिः ।। ३८२.३४ ।।

घटध्वंसाद्यथाकाशमभिन्नं नभसा भवेत् । मुक्तो जीवो ब्रह्मणैवं सद्‌ब्रह्म ब्रह्म वै भवेत् ।। ३८२.३५ ।।

आत्मानं मन्यते ब्रह्म जीवो ज्ञानेन नान्यथा । जीवो ह्यज्ञानतत्कार्य्यमुक्तः स्यादजरामरः ।। ३८२.३६ ।।

Samādhi is the state of (having the attitude) “I am Brahman”. Just as the space enclosed by a pitcher becomes one with the sky when the pitcher is destroyed, in the same way the liberated soul becomes Brahman. The individual soul deems itself as Brahman by (means of) knowledge (alone) and not by any other (means). The individual soul gets released from ignorance and its effect and becomes undecaying and immortal.

~ Yama-Gita, Agni Purana, Chapter 382

  • That's a very detailed and good answer. Thank you for answering.
    – user29449
    Commented Oct 27, 2023 at 15:02
  • @AbhasKumarSinha Thank you. I'd like to add that the above list is not exhaustive. It would be quite time consuming but many more advaita-friendly Sages and Gods can be listed from the puranas. Shiva, Vishnu, Devi , Ganesha etc. have all taught Advaita at various places. Many more sages can also be listed such as Parasara, Ribhu, Nidagha, etc.
    – user31732
    Commented Oct 27, 2023 at 15:20
  • Yes, I perfectly understand that. This question was just to validate Advaita out of little bit contribution of people.
    – user29449
    Commented Oct 27, 2023 at 15:37

Mahāsena Kārtikeya or Subrahmaṇya is himself A Nondualist.

Śivapurāṇa Kailāsa-saṃhitā Chapter 17

श्रीसुबह्मण्य उवाच ।।

अद्वैतशैववादोऽयं द्वैतन्न सहते क्वचित् ।। द्वैतं च नश्वरं ब्रह्माद्वैतम्परमनश्वरम् ।। ३ ।।

Subrahmaṇya said:—

This is the Śaivite philosophy of non-dualism. Nowhere does it tolerate duality (dvaita). Duality perishes and the non-dualism remains imperishable.

सर्वं ब्रह्मेत्युपासीत सर्वं वै रुद्र इत्यपि।। श्रुतिराह मुने तस्मात्प्रपञ्चात्मा सदाशिवः ।।३४।। अष्टत्रिंशत्कलान्याससामर्थ्याद्वैतभावना।। सदाशिवोऽहमेवेति भावि तात्मा गुरुः शिवः।।३५।। एवं विचारी सच्छिष्यो गुरुस्स्यात्स शिवस्स्वयम्।। प्रपञ्चदेवतायंत्रमंत्रात्मा न हि संशयः ।। ३६ ।।

O sage, the Śruti says “Think that everything is Brahman, everything is Rudra.” Thus Sadāśiva is the Ātman of the universe. Due to the concept of thirty-eight Kalās the concept of duality is ever present but he who has purified the Ātman by the concept “I am Sadāśiva” becomes the preceptor Śiva. Such a disciple becomes the preceptor Śiva himself. He attains the form of the Yantra, mantra and the cosmic deity itself.

  • This is a very good answer actually. Thank you for adding it to the list. Glad you were able to add Kartikeya here.
    – user29449
    Commented Nov 23, 2023 at 4:19

Prof Chandradhar Sharma in "Advaita Tradition in Indian Philosophy" Page 124-125 lists some ancient teachers of Vedanta.

References to some ancient teachers of Vedanta are found in the Vedanta literature, but their works, if they composed any, are not extant. Badarayana in his Brahma-sutra names some teachers of old citing their views. They are: Jaimini, Ashmarathya, Badari, Audulomi, Kashakrtsna, Karsnajini and Atreya. Of these Jaimini is the famous author of Purva-Mimamsa-Sutra. Kashkrtsna probably was an Advaitin, because Shankara refers to his view as agreeing with the Shruti. Dravidacharya and Tanka are claimed as Advaitan by their tradition. Shankara refers to Upavarsa and Ramanuja to Bodhayana as ‘vrtttikara.’ Brahmadatta and Sundara Pandya were also leading teachers of their time and from the references to their views it is very probable that they were inclined towards Advaita. Bhartrhari, whose Vakyapadiya, the famous work on the philosophy of grammar and language, is available was a renowned Shabdadvaitavadin. Though he was an uncompromising Advaitin and a supporter of vivartavada, he is primarily a philosopher of grammar and language and his Advaita is different from that of Shankara. There are two works on Vedanta, the Paramdrtha-sara attributed to Adi-Shesa (later on adapted and expanded under the same name by Abhinavagupta into a handbook of Pratyabhijhd-darshana)and the Yogavasistha attributed to the sage Vasistha, which bear some doctrinal and terminological similarities with Gaudapada’s Karika.

King Yayati in Mahabharata too held a similar view.

Yayati answered "The wise, with the help of the Vedas, and of Knowledge, having ascertained the visible universe to be illusory, instantly realises the Supreme Spirit as the sole existent independent essence." (Mahabharata Adi Parva Section XCII )

Coming to Bhagavata Purana, we see various people hinting Advaita Vedanta

SB 1.3.30–34 : Suta says," In the Supreme Being, who is the pure and formless Spirit, His own power, Maya Fabricates all forms with her evolutes,like Mahattattva and other categories...ignorant.Distinct from the gross body, there is the Jiva whose form is made of the subtle essence of matter and is therefore imperceptible to the senses,yet which has to be accepted as transmigrating from life to life.When both these bodies,the gross and subtle, fabricated on the Atman by Ignorance,are sublated through the awareness of their base-That is the realization of BrahmanIt is when Maya,the power of the Lord,(which functions as both Avidya and Vidya for binding and liberating) is pleased to function as Vidya that the Jiva attains to Supreme Enrichment,which is nothing but abiding in his own glory as the spirit,the Pure Being-Consciousness-Bliss.

Śukadeva Gosvāmī says, " : Oh king ! No relation is logically (correctly) possible between perceptible object (e.g. the body) and the Soul whose essential nature is knowledge (and hence different from that of the body), except through his own maya, as (it is not possible) in the case of one who sees visions in a dream. In association with maya which assumes various forms, he appears to have many forms .Amusing himself in her qualities, he thinks ‘This is mine, This is I. Only when he will enjoy himself in his own glory which is beyond Time and maya (or Purusa and Prakrti), and being free from delusion, he gives up both of them, and the false notion I and mine and stands out in his full form unconcerned with anything. "

SB 2.9.33-36 : That should be known as my maya on account of which there appears existence, despite the non-existence of the basic reality, as in the case of false appearance (of two moons even though the other moon, has no existence), and there appears the non-existence of the really existents, as in the case of the planet Rahu (which is never perceived in spite of its existence in the planetary system)—the Soul is the object of such misapprehension. This much should be understood by him who desires to know the reality about the Soul the existence of which everywhere and at all times is proved by logical continuance and discontinuance [i.e. atman exists at all times, everywhere, as the cause of the effected things, and being different from them in the causal state , as being a witness, in the states of wakefulness, dreaming and sleep, and as detached or unconnected from everything in the state of Samadhi etc.]

SB 2.10.6 : Nirodha is the withdrawal of the Jiva, along with all his powers and limitation in Hari when he enters his Yogic sleep. Moksha consists of abandoning the unreal form, and to stay in the essential nature of Brahman.

SB 7.15.62-65 : A contemplative sage who, through the realization of the Self comprehends the unity thought, action and materials of the atman, shakes off the three dreamy states, viz., wakefulness, dream and sleep. Bhavadvaita (non-duality of thought) is the comprehension of the essential oneness of cause and effect like that in the thread and cloth (woven out of thread), their difference being unreal. Oh Yudhisthira ! The resignation of all acts performed through the instrumentality of thought, words and deeds directly to the Supreme Brahman himself, is Kriyadoaita (non-duality of action). Dratyadvaita (non-duality of substances) is the realization of artha and kama (wealth, property and desire) of one’s own self and his wife, children as well as all other embodied beings.

SB 8.3.8-9 : The Lord is not conditioned by birth. He has no Karma, no name or form .However, for the sake of creation and destruction of the world, he assumes them from time to time by his Potency. I bow again and again to that Supreme Lord, the Brahman of infinite potencies. Who, (though) devoid of forms, possesses innumerable forms and performs miraculous activities

SB 8.3.12-14 : I bow to him who assumes the three Gunas and appears as serene, terrible, and immersed in ignorance; who is devoid of differentiating characteristics, equal to all, and an embodiment of pure consciousness. I pay my obeisance to you, who perceive all senses along with their objects; who are indicated (as the basis) by all cognitive activities; whose existence is suggested by the shadowy, unreal phenomenal existence like that of a material body by its reflection, as it is you who are reflected in every phenomenon.

SB 10.14.22 Hence though this entire world which is of unreal nature like dream- experience,devoid of intelligence and full of endless,innumerable miseries,appears and disappears in you who are infinite,eternal bliss and knowledge and through Maya seems real and possesing your characteristics.

SB 10.14.25 In the case of those who do not comprehend the atman (The Self) in its essential nature, the entire world or sathsira is created due to this lack of understanding. But through realization and enlightenment (about his nature) the samsara disappears again, as the appearance and disappearance of the body of a serpent (super-imposed through ignorance) one rope (does before and after realization of the real nature of the rope).

SB 10.14.28 Oh Infinite Lord ! Righteous people really seek you within the body (which is composed of matter and the spirit),by discarding that which is ‘Not-that’ (non- self). Can pious men of accurate judgement arrive at that correct conclusion, that the rope lying near (which was mistaken fora serpent) is certainly a rope, unless they have negated the wrong superimposition of a serpent over that rope (through ignorance).

SB 10.47.29-32 : As I pervade all as their Inner Soul, there cannot be any separation between you and me. Just as the five elements—the ether, air, fire, water and earth—arc found in all beings, similarly, I abide (as the support) in the mind, vital breath, elements, conative and cognitive senses and qualities. By the force of my Maya Potency and in association with elements, the senses and the gunas , I create myself (in various forms) within myself, protect them, and destroy them. The Self is absolutely pure, distinct, untainted and unconcerned with gunas, an embodiment of consciousness and knowledge. He appears (as Viiva, Taijasa and Prajfia) in the states of sleep, dream and wakefulness through mental states (and not directly) which are the creations of Maya. Ever alert and vigilant, a person should try to control that mind with which he broods over the objects of senses which are unreal like the objects seen in a dream, and runs after the senses (sense- object) even during wakefulness.

SB 10.87.36 : If you agree that as this (world) is evolved out of the Reality {Brahman) it must be real, (we say that) that is not the case. This (your) argument is fallacious. In some instances, no invariable concomitance is observed. (The effect does not necessarily follow the nature of the cause, e. g. A son is found different from the father.) In some cases, the so-called evolute is false (e. g. the “misperception” of a rope (a reality) as a serpent (which is unreal). Hence the world is not real like the {Brahman). If (you argue that the “misperception” of a ser pent is caused by the presence of the rope and ignorance about the reality, similarly) the world is the product of both {Brahman and Avidya), we reply that still the world is not real. It is super imposed on the Reality called Brahman, We appreciate the usefulness of this theory. The illusion theory is admitted as it explains the transactions of the phenomenal world, and such transactions are carried on by blindly following traditions

SB 10.87.37 : This phenomenal world was not in existence at the beginning before its creation. After the dissolution, the world shall cease to exist. In the intervening period, being superim posed on you, the Absolute Existence, it appears to be real. Hence, the world is compared with various modifications of material substances (e. g. bangles, armlets, crowns of gold, a pitcher or a dish of earth). It is like a figment of imagination with no basis in reality. But ignorant people regard it as the Reality.

SB 11.11.2 : Grief and infatuation, pleasure and pain, and the condition of the body are the work of Maya (and are not real, but are wrongly attributed to the Soul). Just as a dream is only an unreal appearance of the mind (or intellect), so is Samsara illusory, unreal.

SB 12.5.5-8 : When an earthen pot is broken, the space enclosed within the pot becomes the same as before (the creation of that pot), in the same way when (after self-realization which destroys all Karmas) the body falls off, the individual soul becomes one with Brahman). It is the Maya that creates the mind. The mind creates these bodies, objects of senses and actions of the soul. Hence it is due to the Maya that the jiva is involved in transmigration of samsara.The soul is self- illuminating, distinct from and beyond gross, subtle, unmanifest bodies. Like the sky, he is the support (of everything else), eternal, endless, unparalleled and all pervasive.

SB 12.5.11-13 : I am Brahman, the transcendent effulgence, Brahman the supreme state” — for you who constantly practice this communion of the individual Self with the Universal Undivided , non-dual Self, what consequence is the Takshaka lolling his tongue and belching poison? Because everything – this Takshaka, his poison, your own body and the whole Universe – will have no existence apart from Brahman.O beloved one, whatever you wanted to know about the deeds of the World-Soul – Sri Hari, that I have imparted to you, what more do you wish to know

SB 12.6.9-11: By force of his reason, king Parikshith also established his mind firmly with his Soul and meditated on the Supreme Brahman remaining breathless and motionless like a tree. On the bank of the Ganga, facing to the north and seated on a seat of Kusa grass the end of which pointed to the east, the great Yogin who was completely devoid of attachment and all whose doubts had been resolved, was completely merged in the Brahman.O Brahmanas ! When the king became absorbed in Brahman, it was unnecessary and superfluous to kill him by snake- bite.

SB 12.6.13-15 : Instantly the body of the royal sage who had become merged in Brahman was reduced to ashes by the serpent poison, while all embodied beings stood as mere witnesses. There arose a loud hue and cry all over the earth, the sky and in all directions. For all astonished at the event. (But it was also a joyous occasion as King Parikshith was absorbed in the Brahman

SB 12.13.12 : Its main theme is quintessence of all Upanishads which is characterised by complete oneness identity between Absolute Brahman and Aatman .It is one without a second.And its only object is to secure moksha.

  • 1
    That's a very good answer. Thank you for insight about King Yayati which I hadn't known earlier.
    – user29449
    Commented Oct 23, 2023 at 9:08
  • Shall I add more? From Bhagavatam @AbhasKumarSinha ? Commented Oct 23, 2023 at 9:59
  • A good long list is appreciated in case you know. But please mention that they are taken from Puranas and provide the context that makes you think that they are Advaita, like where are those equating atman and brahman and so, that'd definitely be helpful for other community members. All contribution is positively appreciated.
    – user29449
    Commented Oct 23, 2023 at 11:47
  • Okay, its quite painful but I am giving you full list, as per Bhagavatam and how it supports Advaita. @AbhasKumarSinha Commented Oct 23, 2023 at 14:53
  • Have a look now @AbhasKumarSinha , I don't think I can convince you more than this. Commented Oct 23, 2023 at 15:18

Many have given the name of the Great Advaitin Proponents I will just continue this.

I will just add the name of Adi-Shankara as no one has mentioned him. - No explanation req.

- Sage Yagnalvakya

The Self, my dear Maitreyī, should be realized—should be heard of, reflected on and meditated upon. By the realisation of the Self, my dear, through hearing, reflection and meditation, all this is known.-B.U.2-4-5(b)

  1. The Brāhmaṇa ousts one who knows him as different from the Self. The Kṣatriya ousts one who knows him as different from the Self. The worlds oust one who knows them as different from the Self. The gods oust one who knows them as different from the Self. The beings oust one who knows them as different from the Self. All ousts one who knows it as different from the Self. This Brāhmaṇa, this Kṣatriya, these worlds, these gods, these beings, and this all are the Self.- B.U. 2-4-6
  • Thank you for including Sage Yagnalvakya here.
    – user29449
    Commented Oct 29, 2023 at 5:06

Is there any chance for other revered sages, gods, and incarnations to support the non-dualistic ideals of Advaita Vedanta?

If one is talking about among the Gods, then I would say the greatest proponent of Advaita is none other than Bhagavana Shiva Mahadeva. Is it any wonder, Adi Shankara himself is fondly revered by so many as an incarnation of Shiva himself?

Throughout purānās, itihāsas and even Tantras/Āgamas there are countless instances of Shiva Giving out the timeless teaching of Advaita. I however, will be citing directly from an Upanishad where Shiva teaches the Ajātavāda version of Advaita to Kārtikeya.

Tejobindu Upanishad of Krishna-yajurveda, Chapter III

That which is heard is unreal, all the Vedas are unreal, the Śāstras are unreal, but I am. the Real and of the nature of Chit. The Mūrtis (Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Rudra having limitation) are unreal, all the creation is unreal, all the tattvas are unreal, but know that I am the great Sadāśiva. The master and the disciple are unreal, the mantra of the Guru is unreal, that which is seen is unreal, but know me to be the Real. Whatever is thought of is unreal, whatever is lawful is unreal, whatever is beneficial is unreal, but know me to be the Real. Know the Puruṣa (ego) to be unreal, know the enjoyments to be unreal, know things seen and heard are unreal as also the one woven warp-wise and woof-wise, viz., this universe; cause and non-cause are unreal, things lost or obtained are unreal. Pains and happiness are unreal, all and non-all are unreal, gain and loss are unreal, victory and defeat are unreal. All the sound, all the touch, all the forms, all the taste, all the smell, and all ajñāna are unreal. Everything is always unreal—the mundane existence is unreal—all the guṇas are unreal. I am of the nature of Sat.

"One should cognize his own Ātmā alone. One should always practise the mantra of his Ātmā. The mantra (Ahambrahmāsmi) 'I am Brahman' removes all the sins of sight, destroys all other mantras, destroys all the sins of body and birth, the noose of Yama, the pains of duality, the thought of difference, the pains of thought, the disease of buddhi, the bondage of citta, all diseases, all griefs and passions instantaneously, the power of anger, the modifications of citta, saṅkalpa, crores of sins, all actions and the ajñāna of Ātmā. The mantra 'I am Brahman' gives indescribable bliss, gives the state of ajada (the non-inertness or the undecaying) and kills the demon of non-Ātmā.

The Above Upanishad is commented upon in detail by the 13th CE commentator Nārāyanashrama. It also contains a portion of the famed dialogue between Ribhu and Nidāgha which is widely studied in Advaitic circles by the name of Ribhu Gitā. Hence, For Advaitins, the authenticity of the above text is beyond any doubt.

The Above is simply the tip of the iceberg for a wide corpus of texts where Shiva has given out the non dualistic ideals of Advaita vedanta. For more research on the subject, one can study the Sivagitā of the Padma Purana and the Isvara - Gitā of the Kurma Purāna as well as the Siva Rahasya Itihāsa where detailed non dualistic discourses by Bhagavana Shiva are present.

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In the Garuda Purana, We have Chaturmukha Brahma who explains the direct Advaitic meaning of Aham Brahmasmi. Notable excerpts can be read below. The complete discourse can be read here

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In the TripAda-Vibuti mAha-nArAyana Upanishad, it is stated that when an Upasaka of Sri Adi Narayana attains Vaikuntha, he is given Mahavakya Upadesha by Narayana.

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It is further said, That after attaining Parama-Vaikuntha, An Upasaka of Narayana undertakes to Advaita-Yoga and attains the highest Advaitic realization there by the Grace of Sri Narayana.

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From the Above, it is verily established that Not just Shiva Mahadeva, Even Brahma and Narayana too have very much supported the Nondualistic ideals of Advaita.

  • This is one of the best answers that I've read now on the whole website. Thank you so much for writing this answer. I hope future readers too will be very fond of your writings. +1 from me.
    – user29449
    Commented Dec 3, 2023 at 15:42
  • 1
    @AbhasKumarSinha I have added a few extra things. You may check.
    – user32105
    Commented Dec 4, 2023 at 4:29

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