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Consider this question as the sequel to: Foundational texts of Shatdarshanas

Out of shatdarshanas: The Vedanta school has primarily three sub-schools: Advaita Vedanta, Vishishtadvaita and Davita.

  • Only Advaita Vedanta in the Vedanta school asserts equivalence of Brahman and atman (Enlightenment comes when the person truly realizes the unity of Brahman and self).

  • Similarly, in Sankhya Philosophy, the existence of self is asserted (purusha) and enlightenment (or liberation) is the realization of eternal happiness of self and NOT on the involvement of the second entity in contrast to dualistic philosophy.

  • Similarly, in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (Yoga school) - enlightenment and liberation is through two ways: 1. Self 2. Ishvara, given, that Ishvara is defined as a special Purusha that is enlightened, in contrast to dualistic philosophy where it is supposed to be the creator, sustainer, and destroyer and act like a central entity to grant enlightenment and/or liberate beings by taking own decisions.


So, out of six schools of philosophy in Hinduism (also called Astika because they believe in the concept of self, Ishvara, and accept the authority of Vedas), how do the rest view self in terms of enlightenment and liberation?

How many of them can assert self as the sole cause of enlightenment and liberation without the involvement of any second or third-party entities?

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