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This Sanskrit shloka on Mathematics has intrigued me and I would like to know the source of this shloka.

था शिखा मयूराणां नागानां मणयो यथा।

तद्वद् वेदांगशास्त्राणां गणितं मूर्ध्नि संस्थितम्॥

The translation is as follows,

Just as the crest on the heads of peacocks and the gems on the heads of serpents are in the highest position, in the same way, the place of mathematics in the Vedangashastras is at the top.

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yathā śikhā mayūrāṇāṁ nāgānāṁ maṇayo yathā /
tadvad vedāṅgaśāstrāṇāṁ gaṇitam mūrdhani sthitam //
~ Ārcajyotiṣam (35) ; Yājuṣajyotiṣam (4)

This famous śloka, quoted by the OP, is from Lagadhācārya's Vedāṅgajyotiṣam. There are two surviving recensions of Vedāṅgajyotiṣam, one is Ṛgvedīya & the other is Yajurvedīya, these are named Ārcajyotiṣam & Yājuṣajyotiṣam, respectively. The numbering of the same śloka is different in these two recensions, as mentioned above, and Ārcajyotiṣam provides a variant reading by mentioning 'jyotiṣam' instead of 'gaṇitam' in the śloka.

In his bhāṣya on Yājuṣajyotiṣam (4), Sudhākara Dvivedin says-

tadvat tathā vedāṅgaśāstrāṇāṁ vyākaraṇaniruktakalpaśikśāchandasāṁ śiraḥsu gaṇitam jyotiṣaṁ sthitamasti /

He uses 'gaṇitam' & 'jyotiṣam' together, because gaṇitavidyā is contained within jyotiṣam, and 'jyotiṣam' is also the name of one of the 6 vedāṅgas. 'Jyotiṣam' instead of 'gaṇitam' in the śloka is just a pāḍāntara & doesn't hold any significance, as Sudhākara says in bhāṣya on Ārcajyotiṣam (35),

yajuṣacaturthaślokabhāṣyeṇa sphuṭam / atra 'gaṇitam' sthāne 'jyotiṣam' iti pāṭho na viśeṣārthaprada iti //

If you like Saṁskṛta ślokas praising gaṇita, then check Gaṇitasārasaṅgraha (1.9-23) by Mahāvīrācārya. This section is explicitly devoted to Gaṇitaśāstrapraśaṁsā.

laukike vaidike vāpi tathā sāmāyike'pi yaḥ /
vyāpārastatra sarvatra saṅkhyānamupayujyate //
~ Gaṇitasārasaṅgraha (1.9)

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