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Jeevatma is like a droplet detached from paramatma, the ultimate omnipresent eternal soul.

By achieving moksha, jeevatma gets freed from reincarnation and gets merged in the paramatma.

But why the human soul gets detached from cosmic soul? Since moksha is attained that soul should never come back on earth. Our human existence is because we detached from para Brahma. Why ?

Please enlighten.

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  • Jeevatma is paramatma. It is just due to ignorance, it appears differently.
    – user29449
    Feb 23 at 3:43

2 Answers 2

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Brahman is genderless. Ishwara can be termed as Purusha who again takes birth as a jeeva of limited knowledge and this limited knowledge is due to the effect of Maya. Which binds a jeeva to know it's true self as Ishwara or Brahman thus it gets stuck in the life-death circle. But when the curtain of Maya get removed it knows itself as Brahman (Aham Brahmasmi) and thus grts liberated. But the triad Ishwara, Jeeva and Maya all are Brahman themselves, the difference is only due to the error of Maya.

Swetasvatara Upanishad 4:09.:

“The Lord of Maya (Māyin Maheshwara) projects the Vedas, sacrifices, spiritual practices, past and future, religious observances, all that the Vedas declare, and the whole world including ourselves. The lord of Maya, again, is bound by Maya in this [in the form of Jiva].”

Swetasvatara Upanishad 4:10.:

“Know then Prakriti (nature) is Mâyâ (art), and the Maheshwara the Mâyin (maker); the whole world is filled with what are his members (forms)”.

Svetaswatara Upanishad 1:09.:

“The Supreme Lord Maheshwara appears as Isvara, the omniscient and omnipotent and as the jiva, of limited knowledge and power, both unborn. But this does not deny the phenomenal universe; for there exists further the unborn prakriti, which creates the ideas of the enjoyer, enjoyment and the object. Atman is infinite and all-pervading and therefore devoid of agency. When the seeker knows all these three to be Brahman, he is freed from his fetters”.

Svetaswatara Upanishad 1:12.:

“The enjoyer (jiva), the objects of enjoyment (Maya/Prakriti) and the Ruler (Isvara)—the triad described by the knowers of Brahman—all this is nothing but Brahman. This Brahman alone, which abides eternally within the self, should be known. Beyond it, truly, there is nothing else to be known”.

I hope this clarifies all your queries. Prd..

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The question implies first birth. There is no first birth for a Jiva or human being and there is no answer to the question.

Never was there a time when I did not exist, nor you, nor these rulers of men. Nor shall all of us cease to be hereafter.

Gita 2.12

There are two verses about the universe in the Gita which state that the universe manifests and de-manifests. The Universe has never been created and thus has no beginning and no end.

At the dawn of the day of Brahma this whole universe comes into manifestation from the Unmanifest (Prakrti). When the night begins, it dissolves in that Unmanifest itself.

Gita 8.18

O son of Prtha! This vast collectivity of beings comes inexorably into manifestation again and again, dissolving at the commencement of night, and again coming forth at the dawn of day.

Gita 8.19

Swami Tapasyananda explains the importance of denying the possibility of first creation as follows:

The principal feature of Vedantism and its first tenet is the cyclic view of time and mans's involvement in it. .... This state is called Samsara, the repititive process of life and death. There is no beginning for it, as its framework of Time is cyclic in movement. Matter (Prakriti) and souls (Jiva) are not created at any moment of Time, but are eternally present as dependent existences or as the body of the Supreme Being. ... They come into manifestation at the beginning of a cycle of Time, and at the end dissolve in Him, remaining in their causal conditions, only to come into manifestations again when the new cycle of Time starts after the earlier dissolution.

The Jiva undergoes countless embodiments until he evolves his inherent perfection as the Spirit. In Samsara, owing to the encrustation of Karma or tendencies accrued in earlier lives through one's own actions, that inherent divinity is shrunk and hidden, but never effaced or destroyed. The purpose of the creative cycle is to elicit this divine potentiality of the Spirit and bring it into higher and higher states of perfection. These repeated embodiments are the result of Karma or action in the earlier phases of the Jiva's involvement in Samsara. All actions done leave some tendencies on the mind, and also entitlement for enjoyments or suffering according to the nature of these actions. The accumulation of these effects acquired in births past is the Karma potential regulating the embodiments and experiences of the Jivas. This theory is essential for a conception of a just and righteous God. For, any theory accepting a first creation will have to attribute the responsibility for all suffering and evil to God. In the cyclic theory of creation, there is no first creation and hence no beginning for the Jiva. Therefore it has to be accepted that an original quantum of Karma goes with the very conception of Jiva, and to ask for a beginning for it is only to beg the question.

Swami Tapasyananda in his Introduction to 'A Primer of Hinduism' by D. S. Sarma

There is no beginning of the transmigratory state.

If it be argued that it is not possible (to take Karma - merit and demerit - into consideration in the beginning), since the fruits of work remain still undifferentiated, then we say, no, since the transmigratory state has no beginning.

Brahma Sutra II.i.35

Moreover, this is logical, and (so) it is met with (in the scriptures).

Brahma Sutra II.i.36

And it is logical for the transmigratory existence to have no beginning; for had it emerged capriciously all of a sudden, then there would have been the predicament of freed souls also being reborn here, as also the contingency of results accruing from non-existing causes, for the differences in happiness and misery would have no logical explanation. It has been pointed out already that God is not the cause of inequality, nor is ignorance by itself a source of this, it being homogeneous. Ignorance can at best become the creator of inequality in consequence of the fruits of work, which are acquired as a result of the influence of past impressions of the three infatuations - love, hatred, and delusion. The fallacy of mutual dependence does not arise from the impossibility of bodies being created without karma and karma being performed without bodies; for if creation is beginningless, all this becomes reasonable on the analogy of the seed and the sprout, and hence there will be no defect.

And we realize the beginningless-ness of creation from the Vedas and the Smritis. In the Vedas, for instance, occurs the text, “Myself entering into this as the embodied soul (Jiva-atma - living being)” (Chandogya Upanishad VI.iii.2). Referring to the beginning of creation, this text speaks of the embodied soul as the “living being” on account its sustaining life, and thereby it shows that creation had no beginning; for if creation has a beginning then, since the soul had no life to sustain (at that time), why should the “living being” have been referred to in that text through the word jiva (living one) which comes into use from the fact of supporting the life process (jivana)? It cannot be that the term jiva is used in anticipation that it will support life in future; for an existing relationship is stronger than a future one, inasmuch as the former is an accomplished fact. And the mantra text, “The Ordainer created the sun and moon like those of the previous cycles” (Rig Veda X.cxc.3) shows the existence of earlier cycles of creation. In the Smriti also the transmigratory cycle is noticed to be without beginning, as in “Its form is not here perceived as such, neither its end, nor its origin, nor its continuance (Gita XV.3). The conclusion made in the Puranas also is that the past and future cycles of creation are numberless.

Brahma Sutra Bhasya of Sri Sankaracharya II.i.36 translated by Swami Gambhirananda

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