Satapatha Brahmana, afaik, is a book to explain rituals of Veda samhita. In, it describes Aswamedha Yajna. The verses are supposed to explain Aswamedha sacrifices in Yajur Veda, right? My question is, which corresponding verses of Yajur Veda are these verses of Satapatha Brahmana trying to explain? On the internet, I couldn't find many English translations of Yajur Veda, and when I did, it was Arya Samaj translations which didn't correspond to anything written in Satapatha Brahmana. Can you point out which verses of Yajur Veda are these talking about?

1 Answer 1


I am citing here whole Mantras, not the relevant part mentioned in Shatpath, from Adhyay (Chapter) 23 and Mantra 20-31:


ताऽउ॒भौ च॒तुरः॑ प॒दः स॒म्प्रसा॑रयाव स्व॒र्गे लो॒के प्रोर्णु॑वाथां॒ वृषा॑ वा॒जी रे॑तो॒धा रेतो॑ दधातु ॥२० ॥

Let both of them, the ruler and the people, protect and support each other. May both realise and extend the four values of life: Dharma, righteous living, Artha, worldly well-being, kama, self-fulfilment, and Moksha, ultimate freedom. May the ruler, wielder of power, swift in action and advancement, strengthen the people with power, and the people, in return, strengthen the ruler with power.

उत्स॑क्थ्या॒ऽअव॑ गु॒दं धे॑हि॒ सम॒ञ्जिं चा॑रया वृषन्। य स्त्री॒णां जी॑व॒भोज॑नः ॥२१ ॥

O Ruler, man of strength and power, if there is anyone evil who plays with the life and honour of women, punish him. Establish peace among the people. Establish the rule of law. Eliminate immorality and wantonness from the state.

य॒कास॒कौ श॑कुन्ति॒काहल॒गिति॒ वञ्च॑ति। आह॑न्ति ग॒भे पसो॒ निग॑ल्गलीति॒ धार॑का ॥२२ ॥

Where the ruler strikes at the people, he strikes at the nation and the state because there the people, though otherwise they enjoyed comfort and happiness before, grow weaker and weaker now and fade like a helpless bird. When such a ruler exacts taxes from the farmers, he only cheats the nation.

य॒कऽस॒कौ श॑कुन्त॒कऽआ॒हल॒गिति॒ वञ्च॑ति। विव॑क्षतऽइव ते॒ मुख॒मध्व॑र्यो॒ मा न॒स्त्वम॒भि भा॑षथाः ॥२३ ॥

Ruler, high-priest of the yajna of the state, make no false promises to us. Let your mouth be not like a boaster’s. If you tell lies, you will grow weaker and weaker like a helpless bird and end up, cheating yourself.

मा॒ता च॑ ते पि॒ता च॒ तेऽग्रं॑ वृ॒क्षस्य॑ रोहतः। प्रति॑ला॒मीति॑ ते पि॒ता ग॒भे मु॒ष्टिम॑त. सयत्॥२४ ॥

Ruler, the earth your mother and the sun your father rise to the top of the world. The sun strikes at the treasure of space-waters with his light and power, the earth receives the showers and shines. Celebrate them with the people in yajna: It is beautiful, it is joyous. I am happy.

मा॒ता च॒ ते पि॒ता च॒ तेऽ ग्रे॑ वृ॒क्षस्य॑ क्रीडतः। विव॑क्षतऽइव ते॒ मुखं॒ ब्रह्म॒न्मा त्वं व॑दो ब॒हु ॥२५ ॥

People of the land, your mother-land like the earth and the ruler, father of the nation, like the sun, both joyous, play on top of the world in the midst of beauty and prosperity. Ruler, Brahma, presiding priest of the national yajna, your mouth seems eager to shout with pride and joy. At that time, speak not much, control yourself.

ऊ॒र्ध्वामे॑ना॒मुच्छ्रा॑पय गि॒रौ भा॒र. हर॑न्निव। अथा॑स्यै॒ मध्य॑मेधता. शी॒ते वाते॑ पु॒नन्नि॑व ॥२६ ॥

Ruler of the land, lead this rising nation to the heights of beauty and prosperity like a mountaineer bearing his banner to the top of the mount, and, in the midst of this people, being sanctified as if in the cool mountain breezes, move on higher and ever higher.

ऊ॒र्ध्वमे॑न॒मुच्छ्र॑यताद् गि॒रौ भा॒र. हर॑न्निव। अथा॑स्य॒ मध्य॑मेजतु शी॒ते वाते॑ पु॒नन्नि॑व ॥२७ ॥

Man of knowledge, enlightened citizen, support this rising ruler to the height of glory and power as a mountaineer carrying his burden to the top of the mount, and, in the midst of this nation, and sifting the truth from falsehood, as if, in the cool breeze, shine on in the beauty and prosperity of the land.

यद॑स्याऽअ. हु॒भेद्याः॑ कृ॒धु स्थू॒लमु॒पात॑सत्। मु॒ष्काविद॑स्याऽएजतो गोश॒फे श॑कु॒लावि॑व ॥२८ ॥

When the small and great acts of the people who clear out sin and crime from the society are appreciated by the ruler and the enlightened officers, they, the ruler and the elite, captivate the heart of the people and they shine in their eyes as shakula fish shine in a little pool of water.

यद्दे॒वासो॑ ल॒लाम॑गुं॒ प्र वि॑ष्टी॒मिन॒मावि॑षुः। स॒क्थ्ना दे॑दिश्यते॒ नारी॑ स॒त्यस्या॑क्षि॒भुवो॑ यथा ॥२९ ॥

Just as noble people approach an eminent and reasonable judge for justice, just as a woman is distinguished by her body, so the men of reason find out the truth by direct observation of evidence.

यद्ध॑रि॒णो यव॒मत्ति॒ न पु॒ष्टं प॒शु मन्य॑ते। शू॒द्रा यदर्य॑जारा॒ न पोषा॑य धनायति ॥३० ॥

When the deer eats up the barley it does not care for the field but destroys it. A servant woman who is the mistress of her master loves money but not for the well-being of her master or of her family. So when a ruler exploits his people, he does not care for their well¬ being, he destroys the nation.

यद्ध॑रि॒णो यव॒मत्ति॒ न पु॒ष्टं ब॒हु मन्य॑ते। शू॒द्रो यदर्या॑यै जा॒रो न पोष॒मनु॑ मन्यते ॥३१ ॥

The deer that eats up the barley cares not for the crop and the field. The servant who is a paramour of his mistress cares not for the well-being of the family. The ruler who exploits the people destroys the nation.

Moreover 9th kandika of Shatpath Brahman mention following Mantra from Rigveda 4/39/6:

द॒धि॒क्राव्णो॑ अकारिषं जि॒ष्णोरश्व॑स्य वा॒जिनः॑। सु॒र॒भि नो॒ मुखा॑ कर॒त्प्र ण॒ आयूं॑षि तारिषत्॥

Side note: Instead of using ‘verses’ for vedas always use ‘mantra’ because

  1. The authority of ‘mantra’ is unquestionable.
  2. The meaning of mantra needs to be derived using Vedic literature.
  3. The mantras can have ‘Drishta’, verses can not.
  • Welcome to HSE! Could you add translation of mantras too? As this site is an English site. Not all visitors will understand devanagari alone. :-)
    – TheLittleNaruto
    Commented Mar 21 at 12:56
  • @TheLittleNaruto. Translating mantras would certainly require me to cite other texts too, the answer would become very extensive. However you, or anyone, can add IAST transliteration since I do not know it. Or I would add them if I find them.
    – madhurkant
    Commented Mar 21 at 14:37
  • You can use this online tool: yesvedanta.com/transliterate
    – TheLittleNaruto
    Commented Mar 22 at 1:52
  • I have added English Translation though I don't know about its accuracy. You can keep or remove @madhurkant
    – Pandya
    Commented Mar 24 at 11:21

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