The Brahma Sutras is a treatise explaining and defending the Vedanta school, from the standpoint of bhedābheda (according to Wikipedia).

The first chapter of the Brahma Sutras unifies and summarizes the view of the Upanishads on Brahman and Atman.

And then the second chapter of the Brahma Sutras refutes the philosophies of other orthodox (āstika) schools (Samkhya, Yoga, Purva Mimamsa, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Pashupata, Pancharatra etc.) and heterodox (nāstika) schools (Buddhism, Jainism, Charvaka).


Considering that Vedanta has become the most popular orthodox (āstika) school of Hindu philosophy, with many sub-schools like Advaita, Dvaita etc., what has happened to the other orthodox schools that were refuted by the Brahma Sutras? Are they still existing and, still followed? Which ones have ceased to exist?

  • Brahma Sutras synthesizes/harmonizes the Upanishadic ideas , is a primary canonical source of Vedanta school. There could be partial refutation/acceptance on certain topics with other schools of shad darshana . Nevertheless other schools of shad darsanas , have their own subject matter, thus an independent existence/acceptance.However in the case of any contradiction in few places it is harmonized with Brahma Sutra which takes the precedence over the darsana
    – Athrey
    Mar 18 at 16:02


You must log in to answer this question.

Browse other questions tagged .