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According to certain Puranas, Kalpas are divided into three categories. In Sattvika kalpas, the greatness of Vishnu is predominant, In Rajasika Kalpas the greatness of Brahmā is predominant and in Tamasika Kalpas the Greatness of Shiva is predominant.

Does this mean liberation can only be attained by worshipping the deity whose greatness is predominant in the said Kalpa? As an example, would worshipping Shiva in Sattvika kalpas or Brahmā in Tamasika kalpas lead to liberation or not?

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Yes, though puranas mentions Kalpas being divided into Sat, Raj, Tam. But ultimately prayer goes to the 4th Turiya one only.

Shiva Purana 7.1.13.:

I (Vāyu) shall narrate how Rudra was born and how Brahmā and Viṣṇu were born from each other.

13-15. The three are the Ātmans as causes born of Maheśvara; they are the causes of creation, sustenance and annihilation of the universe consisting of the mobile and immobile beings. Endowed with great qualities they are sanctified by the great lord. Presided over by his Śakti they can always perform their activities. Brahmā can create; Viṣṇu can protect; Rudra can annihilate.

16-21. But they rivalled with one another. Desirous of excelling one another they propitiated their father, the supreme lord by means of penance. Attaining all round favour of the lord at the outset in a former Kalpa, Rudra created Brahmā and Viṣṇu. In another Kalpa, Brahma created Rudra and Viṣṇu. In another Kalpa Viṣṇu created Rudra and Brahmā. Thus in different Kalpas, Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Rudra desiring mutual benefit are born of one another. Based on the events in their respective Kalpas, their process in being the cause of origin of one another is extolled by the sages. Now listen to their holy and wonderful story that releases from sins.

Shiva Mahima Strotam.:

Just as different Rivers merge into the ocean, Similiarly various paths (of ultimate realization) arc enjoined by the three Vedas, by Sankhya, Yoga, Pashupata (Shaiva) doctrine and Vaishnava Shastras.

People follow different paths, straight or crooked, according to their temperament, depending on which they consider best, or most appropriate--and reach (merge into) You (Shiva) alone. (7).

Skanda Purana, Suta Samhita, 22nd Chapter of YajnaVaibhava Khanda.:

As all streams ultimately empty themselves into the ocean, so all these paths ultimately lead to the Great Lord (Maheshwara) Himself."

I hope this clarifies all your queries. Prd..

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