# How to calculate Panchang?

I want to know the method of calculating Tithi, Vara, Nakshatra, Yoga and Karana AKA Panchanga of a specific day . Does anybody know it?

Update

Please be in mind that I'm not asking any websites/apps for calculating panchanga , but I just want to know the mathematical formula/way of calculating panchanga.

• There is an excellent and free android app called 'Hindu Calendar' with has the calculations for Panchang and all other monthly holy days and festivals. It has a swastika as its symbol when you get the search results in the google play store. Commented Jul 5, 2015 at 11:42
• Are you looking for a website that gives you this information, or are you looking for a way to calculate the information yourself? Commented Jul 5, 2015 at 18:51
• @Keshav Srinivasan - I want to calculate panchanga myself, not any website or any app... Commented Jul 6, 2015 at 3:45
• @KiranRS Are you looking to find out how to calculate the positions of the stars in the sky, or are you asking to find the Tithi, Vara, Nakshatra, etc. if you already know the astronomical information, or both? Commented Jul 6, 2015 at 4:21
• For an example, if I choose the date 2015,July 6, I want to know which Nakshathra is in this date, and the nazhika and vinazhika , thithi/vara of that particular day etc. I don't want know the position of the stars. I just want to know the method of calculation. Commented Jul 6, 2015 at 4:52

## 1 Answer

Panchang is a Hindu calendar and almanac, which follows traditional units of Indian timekeeping, and presents important dates and their calculations in a tabulated form. The word Panchang is basically made up of 2 words ie,

1. Panch (meaning Five)
2. Ang (meaning Parts)

So, the word 'Panchang' basically refers to a system of calculating and keeping a date into 5 parts. These 5 parts that make up a particular date are:

1. Tithi
2. Day
3. Nakshatra
4. Yog
5. Karan

## Tithi

The Thithi is calculated with help of position of Sun and Moon in transit.

Tithi = (Moon Longitude - Sun Longitude) / 12 .

If the calculated result is greater than 15, we have to subtract 15 from the result. The net result is Tithi.

TITHI VRIDHI is the tithi present at Sunrise on first day anas well as on the second day.

## Day

Seven days of the week are Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday & Saturday. In Hindi, they are referred as Ravivaar, Somvaar, Mangalvaar, Buddhvaar, Brihaspativaar/Guruvaar, Shukravaar and Shanivaar resp.

## Nakshatras

The 360 degrees zodiac is divided into 27 parts to acheive a single nakshatra i.e. of 13 degrees 20 min. There are 27 Nakshatras, Every nakshatra is further divided into four periods (CHARAN) i.e. 3 degree 20 min. A Rashi consists of Two and a quarter of the Nakshatras.

Calculation of NAKSHATRA Nakshatra = Moon Longitude / 13 deg. 20 min

## Yog

There are 27 Yogas named as Vishkumbh, Preeti, Aayushman, Saubhagya, Shobhan, Atigand, Sukarma, Dhriti, Shool, Gand, Vridhi, Dhruv, Vyaghat, Harshan, Vajra, Sidhi, Vyatipat, Variyaan, Parigh, Shiv, Sidh, Sadhya, Shubh, Shukla, Brahm, Ainder and Vaidhriti.

Calculation of YOG : Yog = (Moon Longitude + Sun Longitude) / 13 deg. 20 min

## Karan

One tithi consists of two karans. there are total 11 Karan, among them seven Char karans are named as Vav, Valav, Kaulav, Taitil, Gar, Vanij, Vishti. Four are fixed Karans named as Shakuni, Chatushpad, Naag kinstughan.

Calculation of KARAN Karan = (Tithi) / 2

[Source: link]

Btw, if you want to read the in depth explanation of tithi calculation along with calculations regarding solar/lunar eclipses and why these factors are used you can read through this PDF document.

• Can you show some examples with these calculations? Example, take date , 08-july-2015 and show its pachnga with these formulas? Also i need Nazhika of a specific star in a date. Thanks for your effort... :) Commented Jul 9, 2015 at 5:45
• @Kiran RS, there are various calculations required for getting the sun and moon's position (ie, latitude, longitude) which differs from place to place and time to time. That is a bit difficult to do manually. If you are from software programming background and have knowledge of maths and trigonometry then may be I can provide you some code and you can try understanding that but without that I don't think I will be able to explain more.
– Aby
Commented Jul 13, 2015 at 8:08
• @Kiran RS, Regarding Nazhika or time calculation for sunrise and sunset, you can refer to this link( but again you will require knowledge of latitude, longitude and trigonometry: sydneyobservatory.com.au/2007/…
– Aby
Commented Jul 13, 2015 at 8:09
• @Kiran RS, If you know bit of Software terminology, then you can also go through the following link which explains it very well: williams.best.vwh.net/sunrise_sunset_algorithm.htm
– Aby
Commented Jul 13, 2015 at 8:20
• @KiranRS You may be interested in my answer here, about how astronomical calculations were traditionally done in Vedic astrology: hinduism.stackexchange.com/a/958/36 Commented Jul 13, 2015 at 14:09