• Who wrote the Vedas and why?
  • How did the Vedas exist since their inception?
  • Where can we read the Vedas?
  • The 5 Great Vedas, whose 4 are the most famous, originated from the Mimamsa philosophy and intertwined the Samkhya tradition. At the same time the Agamas were already present and did contributed to develop the Vedas.
    – user22667
    Jan 5, 2021 at 14:47

8 Answers 8


The Vedas are Śruti, which means "that which is heard" (what Christians would call "revelation"). Hindus believe that from time immemorial, sages known as Dhrishtas (literally "seers") have, during a state of Tapasya (deep meditation), heard sacred verses directly from the gods. In the Dwapara Yuga (the age before the one we're currently in), these verses were compiled by a sage named Krishna Dwaipayana Veda Vyasa (or Vyasa for short) into a set of four books we call the Vedas. (Technically Vyasa only compiled the first three books - Rig, Yajur, and Sama - while the Atharvana Veda is attributed to the sages Angiras and Atharvan.) As the words of the Vedas are believed to be divine in origin, they are held to be the foremost authority of the Hindu religion. As Rama says in the Ayodhya Kanda of the Ramayana, the Vedas "have the foundation in Truth [and] one should thoroughly surrender to truth."

I should add that each of the four Vedas is divided into four portions: Samhitas, the core part of the Vedas which consist of hymns to various gods; Brahmanas, which provide instructions on the proper conducting of important rituals; Aranyakas, which provide a guide to rituals meant for forest-dwellers and hermits; and Upanishads, which consist of conversations between teachers and students which clarify the philosophical message of the Vedas. In any case, when someone says "I read the Rig Veda" without qualification, they usually mean the Rig Veda Samhita, because the Samhitas are the core part of the Vedas which came directly from the gods.

(Note: the above is excerpted from my answer here.)

As for where you can read the Vedas, sacred-texts.com is a good site. Here's the Rig Veda Samhita, the Krishna Version of the Yajur Veda Samhita, the Shukla version of the Yajur Veda Samhita, the Sama Veda Samhita, the Atharvana Veda Samhita, the Shatapatha Brahmana of the Yajur Veda, some major Upanishads from various Vedas, and some minor Upanishads.

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    There is no need of pointing christian's revelation in the answer and nobody is sure of that.
    – user11
    Aug 18, 2014 at 17:20
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    @A_runningMind I certainly wasn't endorsing Christianity's claim that the Bible constitutes revelation. I was just noting that Christians have a concept similar to Shruti, since the average reader is probably more familiar with the word "revelation" than the word "Shruti". Aug 19, 2014 at 0:38
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    @A_runningMind, people are often familiar with Christian terms than Hindu terms (more so in a West dominated world). So, it helps in using analogy. Aug 19, 2014 at 7:51
  • For the first question i can say Vedas thought by old people who dint know how to write so from then it is said that Vedas are said orally not by writing so that's how these came in and later people who knows writing and they wanted in written form that's how it appeared in text form.
    – Nagarjun
    Oct 21, 2015 at 5:15
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    @sv. Yeah, the Vedas are known among men in all four Yugas, it's just that they exist as disorganized mantras in earlier Yugas, until the Vedavyasa compiles them into the four books we call the Vedic Samhitas. The Vedavyasa of Rama's Mahayuga was actually Valmiki. By the way, when we say the Vedas are eternal, technically only the mantras found in the Samhitas of the Vedas are the eternal sounds that are constantly reverberating. The Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and Upanishads are humanly composed commentaries on the Samhitas, although they're still divinely inspired. Jan 22, 2016 at 1:33

The traditional answer to the question as to how the Vedas came into existence is that the Vedas are eternal! The traditional answer to the question as to who wrote the Vedas is that there are no writers! Vedas are anadi or beginning-less. Some Hindus (those who follow Purva Mimamsa Darshana) and probably others still hold to these views literally. Is there any way to understand the claims of Vedas being beginningless and eternal in a non-literal sense? I am posting below Swami Vivekananda's views on the Vedas:

There was a time when the Vedas themselves were considered eternal in the sense in which the divine truths contained therein were changeless and permanent and were only revealed to man. At a subsequent time, it appears that the utterances of the Vedic hymns with the knowledge of its meaning was important; and it was held that the hymns themselves must have had a divine origin. At a still later period, the meaning of the hymns showed that many of them could not be of divine origin, because they inculcated upon mankind performance of various unholy acts, such as torturing animals; and we can find many ridiculous stories in the Vedas. The correct meaning of the statement "The Vedas are beginning less and eternal" is that the law or truth revealed by them to man is permanent and changeless. Logic, geometry, chemistry, etc., reveal also a law or truth which is permanent and changeless and in that sense they are also beginning less and eternal. But no truth or law is absent from the Vedas, and I ask any one of you to point out to me any truth which is not treated of in them. (Vivekananda Complete Works (CW), Vol.5: With the Swami Vivekananda at Madura, pp.205-206)

The Hindus have received their religion through revelation, the Vedas. They hold that the Vedas are without beginning and without end. It may sound ludicrous to this audience [in the West] how a book can be without beginning or end. But by the Vedas no books are meant. They mean the accumulated treasury of spiritual laws discovered by different persons in different times. Just as the law of gravitation existed before its discovery and would exist if all humanity forgot it, so is it with the laws that govern the spiritual world. The moral, ethical, and spiritual relations between soul and soul and between individual spirits and the Father of all spirits were there before their discovery, and would remain even if we forget them. (CW, Vol.1: Paper on Hinduism, pp.6-7.)

The Vedas are anadi, eternal. The meaning of the statement is not, as is erroneously supposed by some, that the words of the Vedas are anadi, but that the spiritual laws inculcated by the Vedas are such. These laws, which are immutable and eternal, have been discovered at various times by great men or rishis, though some of them have been forgotten now, while others are preserved. (CW, Vol.6: Notes Taken Down in Madras, 1892-93, p.103)

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    From the Vishnu Purana: "Twenty-eight times have the Vedas been arranged by the great Rishis in the Vaivaswata Manwantara in the Dwápara age, and consequently eight and twenty Vyásas have passed away; by whom, in their respective periods, the Veda has been divided into four... the Vyása of the twenty-eighth ... was Krishńa Dwaipáyana." sacred-texts.com/hin//vp/vp077.htm. Note it says arranged and divided, not authored, because in each Vyasa just compiles the Vedas, the actual words are still words of the gods. Jul 5, 2014 at 17:21
  • By the way, it's wrong to say that only some Hindus today view the words of the Vedas as eternal. That is the predominant view of Hinduism, not just the view of those who subscribe to Purva Mimamsa. Jul 5, 2014 at 17:29
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    I would say that many Hindus today would not interpret the meaning of the word eternal the way it would be interpreted by followers of PM. They would prefer to view the spiritual laws encoded in the Vedas as eternal and not the books themselves. I certainly do not think that the Vedic books are eternal in the literal sense of the word. Jul 5, 2014 at 17:37
  • A legend has it that during the creation, the demons Madhu-Kaitabha stole the Vedas from Brahma, and Vishnu then took the Hayagriva form to recover them. Can you please explain this.
    – user304
    Jul 6, 2014 at 14:54

Even before mankind, the Vedas existed. Krishna says:

'aham eva vedya': I know Vedas and mankind knows me from Vedas.

Vedas are 'apauruSheya'.

Bhagavata says Vedas were there in all yugas. Vedas are to be found by meditating and propagating what is found. It's not prayers. Like how Vishwamitra found the Gayatri and it became known as the Vishwamitra Gayatri (Mantra) and himself became a Rishi for that.

vEdaasthe nityavinnathvaachruthayaashaakhilai: shrutE: |
Amnaaya anyathaapaataadheesha bhudhisthita sada ||- Iti varahe

This smrithi says that Vedas existed all the time and were not written by any single person or by a collection of people. They have always existed in the mind of Lord all the time! So Vedas are as ancient as God. They were not created by God and they just existed with him. That's why Krishna says Vedas are by which you can know me.

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    The Vedas existed before mankind? That seems hard to believe. Is there any evidence or signs showing that? Besides that, you mention a single god (like a monotheistic god). And it seems to me that Hinduism is polytheistic.
    – Rodrigo
    Feb 5, 2017 at 3:36
  • @rodrigo English is not natural language of Hinduism. In English we use "God" to refer to either supreme being/ultimate reality of Hinduism. Supreme being/ultimate reality (which one depends on sampradaya) of hinduism is one from him everything is created/manifested, in whom everything resides, into whom everything will dissolve. This "God" of ours is not jealous God on abrahamism. So we can and do worship various supernatural beings called devas/devatas . We can and do worship ancestors and also are free to revere nature like trees,rivers, snakes, cows, parents, guests, guru etc. contd .....
    – Aks
    Feb 15, 2017 at 6:10
  • @rodrigo Only worship/knowledge of supreme being/ultimate reality can lead to spiritual liberation. But worship of devatas/ancestors and others if done according to scriptures/tradition can lead to material benefits. This worship doesn't offend supreme being in any way. Reverence of nature objects is done mainly as expression of gratitude.
    – Aks
    Feb 15, 2017 at 6:14
  • @rodrigo Addition to first comment. In pluralist sects of hinduism, Supreme being is one who creates everything from preexisting substance, on to who that created universe depends, by whom that created universe is destroyed again.
    – Aks
    Feb 15, 2017 at 6:18
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    @Matarishvan: Your translation of "aham eva vedya" as " I know Vedas and mankind knows me from Vedas." is incorrect. It simply means "I am the One to be known".
    – PCH
    Sep 26, 2018 at 21:51

Who wrote the Vedas and why?

Vedas do not have a mundane mortal creater. They manifested from the Supreme Lord and they are eternal like the Supreme Lord. In Srimad Bhagavatam 6.1 yamadutas tell the Visnudutas vedo narayanah saksat svayambhur iti susruma - 'The Vedas are directly the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Narayana and are self-born. This we have heard from Yamarāja'

Also in the first verse of Srimadbhagavatam Vyasadeva says 'om namo bhagavate vasudevaya ... ene brahma hrda ya adi-kavaye' He offers respects to vāsudeva, the son of Devaki, and says He revealed brahma (another name of Vedas) to ādi-kavi (Lord Brahma) with in his heart.

More clearly we find in Srimadbhagavatam 11.14.3 where Lord Krishna tells Uddhava:

sri-bhagavan uvaca
kalena nasta pralaye
 vaniyam veda-samjñita
mayadau brahmane prokta
 dharmo yasyam mad-atmakah

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: By the influence of time, the transcendental sound of Vedic knowledge was lost at the time of annihilation. Therefore, when the subsequent creation took place, I spoke the Vedic knowledge to Brahmā because I Myself am the religious principles enunciated in the Vedas.

Now we know that they are eternal and came from the Supreme Lord, the purpose of the Vedas is like the manual of a product. They are the manuals to give us knowledge of this material world and also the means to attain the goal of human life.

How did the Vedas exist since their inception?

Just like I mentioned above they were transmitted to Brahma and came down in disciplic succession. From Brahma to Narada and other saints. Narada gave them to Vyasa. They existed in the sound form and from the time of Vyasa some form of transcription started. Unlike the modern idea that civilization is advancing the Vedic idea is that people are actually degrading as kali yuga progresses. Their memory is not as strong now. In the previous ages, due to practicing strict life of celibacy and austerities, the students of Vedas had sharp memories.

Where can we find the Vedas to read? This is not a trivial thing. Vedas cannot be understood with out the help of a teacher. This is given in the Vedas itself. While you can find some versions floating on the internet the authenticity of some of the content is questionable. Five hundred years ago the stalwart genius Jiva Gosvami wrote a detailed, logical, technical work called tattva sandarbha in which he addresses the issue of what constitutes Vedas and how should we approach them in this modern day. He points out the certain portions of the Vedas are actually not available now and there exists many confusing interpretations as well. I found from a sanskrit scholar (Gopiparanadhana dasa) that at present only 11 samhita, 18 Brahmanas, 7 Aranyakas and 220 Upanishads are available. This constitutes only 6% of what is stated in Kurma Purana.

So Jiva Gosvami says that the puranas and itihasas constitute much better, authentic and reliable knowledge. He cites Mahabharata adi-parva and the Manu Samhita whic states 'One should complete one's understanding of the Vedas with the help of puranas and itihasas'. Also it is said the Puranas are called by that name because they 'complete'. You cannot complete something which is not of the same nature so Puranas are actually part of Vedas. Jiva Gosvami addresses the concern some may have in considering puranas as Vedas. He cites from the passage of Madhyandina Sruti, Brhad-aranyaka Upanishad 2.4.10 which states 'Thus indeed the breath of the Supreme Being constitues the Rg Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda, Atharvangirasa Veda, Itihasa and Purana'. Bhagavatam says originally the Veda was one and Vyasa divided into four. He also cites several other sources like Skanda Purana. Interested can look up for 'Tattva Sandarbha' translation by Gopi Paranadhana Dasa.

Srimad Bhagavatam also calls Puranas as fifth Veda:

 pañcamam vedam isvarah
sarvebhya eva vaktrebhyah
 sasrje sarva-darsanah

Then he created the fifth Veda — the Puranas and the histories — from all his mouths, since he could see all the past, present and future.

So while you can find some texts of Rg, Yajur, Sama and Atharva by googling around, the contents will not complete and the interpretations/translations may not be fully accurate. You would be better off with some well known upanishads like Isopanishad and speific Vedanta Sutra citations in commentaries to texts like Bhagavata Purana. Best is to take the summary of all Vedas that is given by Vyasa in the top most Bhagavata Purana. You can find one commentary here.

  • Why refer to holy texts at all ? The "goal" of Hinduism is to produce a fully realized being who has the consciousness of God. Finding such a being and following the teachings of same should be all one needs to satisfy the spiritual longings, right ??? Sep 30, 2018 at 1:47

All the Vedic texts are eternal and appeared from the Supreme Lord:

Atharva Veda 11.7.24:

rcah samani chandamsi puranam yajusa saha ucchistaj-jajnire sarve divi deva divi-sritah

"The Rg, Sama, Yajur and Atharva became manifest from the Lord, along with the Puranas and all the Devas residing in the heavens."

Atharva Veda 15.6.10–12:

sa brhatim disam anu vyacalat tam itihasas ca puranam ca gathas ca itihasasya ca sa vai puranasya ca gathanam ca narasamsinam ca priyam dhama bhavati ya evam veda

"He approached the brhati meter, and thus the Itihasas, Puranas, Gathas and Narasamsis became favorable to him. One who knows this verily becomes the beloved abode of the Itihasas, Puranas, Gathas and Narasamsis."

Madhyandina-sruti, Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 2.4.10

asya mahato bhutasya nihsvasitam etad yad rg-vedo yajur-vedah sama vedo’tharvangirasa itihasah puranam ityadina

“O Maitreya, the Rg, Yajur, Sama and Atharva Vedas as well as the Itihasas and the Puranas all manifest from the breathing of the Lord.”

Gopatha Brahmana, purva 2.10

evam ime sarva veda nirmitah sa-kalpah sa-rahasyah sa-brahmanah sopanisatkah setihasah sanvakhyatah sa-puranan

“In this way, all the Vedas were manifested along with the Kalpas, Rahasyas, Brahmanas, Upanishads, Itihasas, Anvakhyatas and the Puranas.”

Kauthumiya Chandogya Upanisad 7.1.4

nama va rg-vedo yajur-vedah sama-veda atharvanas caturtha itihasa-puranah pancamo vedanam vedah

“Indeed, Rg, Yajur, Sama and Atharva are the names of the fourVedas. The Itihasas and Puranas are the fifth Veda.”

Ref: nitaigaurangablog

All this texts appeared from the supreme Person and transferred from generation to generation through various disciplic chains as described in Srimad Bhagavatam canto 12, chapter 6 and 7: Vedabase.com/en/sb/12


Surprisingly, the other answers all only give various versions of traditional beliefs on the origin of the Vedas proper but not the historical truth.

See the surprisingly well-curated Wiki article RigVeda for the actual historical truths about the origin of the Rig Veda. Its dating information etc. are sourced from scientific scholarship (as of this posting).

The Vedas were not written but were composed orally by human poets arising amidst native speakers of Vedic Sanskrit, with the earliest Veda, the Rig Veda, composed over hundreds of years 1500-1200 B.C in the North West of the Indian subcontinent. Other vedas are for the most part younger than the Rig Veda with the Atharva Veda being the youngest of them all.

The authorship of most of the mandalas of the Rig Veda is, by tradition itself, attributed via the Anukramaṇī to poets from individual families such as the Kaṇvas, Viśvāmitras, Atris et al.

The Vedas were trasnmitted strictly orally with an ingenious system of recitation put in place when the Aryans settled in Kurukṣetra to ensure that no errors crept in. That system has preserved certain very minute tones that escaped even the notice of traditional grammarians. The Rig Veda was written down only about a millenium ago.

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    Welcome to Hinduism StackExchange! You should cite some sources. For more information visit help center.
    – Pandya
    Sep 28, 2018 at 1:27
  • @Pandya: This is standard material which you can find in any scholarly text book or paper. I can cite one if you wanted one. But as for citing sources, take a look at hinduism.stackexchange.com/questions/21613/… where a Rig Vedic verse is arbitrarily split into gibberish...better to focus our energy on asking such posters to cite real scholarly sources.
    – PCH
    Sep 28, 2018 at 5:15
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    @sv.: You could not not have been seriosu when you say: "please do for everything you write on this site. Doesn't matter what authority you cite." but in the same breath you also say: " one can write original translations/personal interpretations for verses asking for "correct" translation using a Sanskrit dictionary". What is the use of a citation if a person could post his own nonsense pseudo-translation of Vedic verses? And the authorities cited also don't matter since you state: ' Doesn't matter what authority you cite". My post is supported by en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigveda.
    – PCH
    Sep 29, 2018 at 6:30
  1. Who wrote Vedas and Why.?

Vedas are not written by anyone they Apauruṣeyā (Eternal) and are the breath of Parmeshwara


Yasya Nishvasitam Vedah yo vedebhyo akhilam jagat Nirmame taham vandeyatirtha Maheshvaram Shivatvam Gurutvamcha-Shakti tvameivasi Mata Pita-cha tvameva taviimevasi bandhur taviimevasi tanviyyvashya gayatirmeya matirdevi sarvam tvamaiva || ( — 𝗥𝗶𝗴𝘃𝗲𝗱𝗮).

(Translated thus: To Him I bow down, whose very exhalation of breath are the Vedas, the One who creates the universe from it, remaining uninvolved, un-manifest, and who is the most sacred and cherished shrine of pilgrimage for all the streams Oh Shiva, You are the Lord, You are the Guru you are the mother shakthi (energy) and the Divine Energy manifest in Creation. You are Mother, Father and the best companion also, and You are the Knowledge of all that is. Bless me so that my intellect is devoted and directed to You, and that it will stay in it forever.

There is hymn on Kaala aspect of Lord Shiva in the Vedas. It clearly says that from Kaala (Shiva) Vedas took its birth.

"In Kāla erst the text produced what is and what is yet to be. From Kāla sprang the Richas, and from Kāla was the Yajus born."(Atharva Veda 19:54:3)

Atharva Veda reveals the same truth about Lord Shiva in the Book 15, let's have a look into it.

"He went away to the last region. Richas, Sāmans Yajus formulas and Devotion followed him. He who possesses this knowledge becomes the dear home of Earth and Agni and herbs and trees and shrubs and plants."(Atharva Veda 15:6:3)

Now switching to Upanishads, ekakshara Upanishad clearly reveals that Vedas were originated from Lord Shiva.

ऋचो यजूंशि प्रसवन्ति वक्त्रात्सामानि सम्राड्वसुवन्तरिक्षम् ।त्वं यज्ञनेता हुतभुग्विभुश्च रुद्रास्तथ दैत्यगणा वसुश्च ॥(Ekakshar Upanishad 7)“The >Vedic verses, prose formulas and songs proceed from Thy mouth. Thou shinest best (as) the Vasus and the sky. Thou art the leader of the sacrifice; thou art the all-pervading fire and the Rudras. So also (art Thou) the hosts of demons and Vasus”.

Why Vedas were made.?

The very first appearance of Dakshinamurty is visible in Upanishads itself. At the beginning of this creation, the first entity that sprang into existence was Hiranyagrabha (where Brahma appeared). Svetaswatara Upanishad states that Rudra created Brahma and passed on Vedas to him as follows.

“yo devaanaaM prabhavashchodbhavashcha vishvaadhipo rudro maharshhiH | hiraNyagarbha.n janayaamaasa puurva.n sa no buddhyaa shubhayaa sa.nyunaktu ||” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 3:04) “He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe, He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect!"

Brahma didn’t know what for he emerged. He didn’t have the knowledge of what to create and how to create. Then he took the refuge of his own creator viz. Mahadeva, and worshiped him. Being pleased by his devotion, Rudra, bestowed Brahma, with the knowledge of creation as stated below.

"sargaadikaale bhagavaanviri~nchirupaasyaina.n sargasaamarthyamaapya | ” (Dakshinamurty Upanishad 1:20)

“At the beginning of creation, Brahmâ the Lord, having worshipped S’iva, attained power to create and was delighted at heart”.

How did he bestow that knowledge of creation? The answer is Rudra gave him Vedas as stated below.

“yo brahmaaNa.n vidadhaati puurva.n | yo vai vedaa.nshcha prahiNoti tasmai .ta.n ha devaM aatmabuddhiprakaashaM | mumuxurvai sharaNamahaM prapadye |” (Svetaswatara Upanishad 6:18) “Seeking Liberation, I take refuge in the Lord, the revealer of Self-Knowledge, who in the beginning created Brahma and delivered the Vedas to Him”.

Shiva bestowed Brahma with Vedas and made him capable of creating the world. We may have a question, - how can Vedas make someone capable of creating the world? The answer is, Vedas contain the blue-print of entire creation coded in secret format. In Mahabharata Shanti Parva chapter CCXXXII the illustrious sage Vyasa states the following. This entire creation takes its form and shape from the blue print /seed which are hidden in Vedas. All the great Rishis also have their origin from Vedas.

“At the outset the Self-born caused those excellent Vedic sounds, that are embodiments of knowledge and that have neither beginning nor end to (spring up and) flow on (from preceptor to disciple). From those sounds have sprung all kinds of actions. The names of the Rishis, all things that have been created, the varieties of form seen in existent things, and the course of actions, have their origin in the Vedas. Indeed, the Supreme Master of all beings, in the beginning, created all things from the words of the Vedas. Truly, the names of the Rishis, and all else that has been created, occur in the Vedas. Upon the expiration of his night (i.e., at the dawn of his day), the uncreate Brahman creates, from prototypes that existed before, all things which are, of course, well-made by Him. In the Vedas hath been indicated the topic of the Soul's Emancipation, along with the ten means constituted by study of the Vedas, adoption of the domestic mode of life, penances, observance of duties common to all the modes of life, sacrifices, performance of all such acts as lead to pure fame, meditation which is of three kinds, and that kind of emancipation which is called success (Siddhi) attainable in this life". (MBH Shanti Parva chapter CCXXXII).

Does it mean Brahma got some published books printed and bounded nicely? Do we have any scriptural reference where Brahma is shown to be creating universes referring to some page no. of Vedas? No! Vedas mean “knowledge”. The word ‘Veda’ is derived from the Sanskrit root word ‘vid’ which means knowledge. So, Vedas are nothing but knowledge itself. So, when Upanishad says Shiva gave Vedas to Brahma, it implies that Shiva bestowed him with the knowledge required for his creation.

  1. How did the vedas exists since their inception.?

Well, as i said before that vedas are eternal. Still the lineage of Lord Brahma took care of it.

Like from Lord Brahma sages like Narada, Kumaras, 7 Rishis, etc got it. Then they passed it on to their students. Then Vedavyasa compiled it into 4 parts viz Rid, Sama, Yadur, Atharva and the 5th being Puranas and Itihasas.

  1. Where can we read the Vedas ?

Well you can read it both off line and online. There are both soft and hard copies of vedas are present.

As for me i will personally recommend you to download this awsome app from the google playstore. Here you can get all 4 Vedas plus around 60 Upanishads in all three languages viz Sanskrit, Hindi and English.

I hope this clarifies your queries.


According to an unnamed deity in the Mahabharata that may well be lying, He is the origin of the four Vedas. Now, I know a lot of people just blindly believe quotes, so this should be convincing to them. It is almost certainly the mysterious Imperishable One, given his power set and lack of a real name.

"Markandeya continued, 'The Deity then said, 'O Brahmana, the gods even do not know me truly! As however, I have been gratified with thee, I will tell thee how I created the universe! O regenerate Rishi, thou art devoted to thy ancestors and hast also sought my protection! Thou hast also beheld me with thy eyes, and thy ascetic merit also is great! In ancient times I called the waters by the name of Nara; and because the waters have ever been my ayana or home, therefore have I been called Narayana (the water-homed). O best of regenerate ones, I am Narayana, the Source of all things, the Eternal, the Unchangeable. I am the Creator of all things, and the Destroyer also of all. I am Vishnu, I am Brahma and I am Sakra, the chief of the gods. I am king Vaisravana, and I am Yama, the lord of the deceased spirits. I am Siva, I am Soma, and I am Kasyapa the lord of the created things. And, O best of regenerate ones, I am he called Dhatri, and he also that is called Vidhatri, and I am Sacrifice embodied. Fire is my mouth, the earth my feet, and the Sun and the Moon are my eyes; the Heaven is the crown of my head, the firmament and the cardinal points are my ears; the waters are born of my sweat. Space with the cardinal points are my body, and the Air is my mind. I have performed many hundreds of sacrifices with gifts in profusion. I am always present in the sacrifices of the gods; and they that are cognisant of the Vedas and officiate therein, make their offerings to me. On earth the Kshatriya chiefs that rule over men, in performing their sacrifices from desire of obtaining heaven, and the Vaisyas also in performing theirs from desire of winning those happy regions, all worship me at such times and by those ceremonials. It is I who, assuming the form of Sesha support (on my head) this earth bounded by the four seas and decked by Meru and Mandara. And O regenerate one, it is I who, assuming the form of a boar, had raised in days of yore this earth sunk in water. And, O best of Brahmanas, it is I who, becoming the fire that issues out of the Equine mouth, drink up the waters (of the ocean) and create them again. In consequence of my energy from my mouth, my arms, my thighs, and my feet gradually sprang Brahmanas and Kshatriyas and Vaisyas and Sudras. It is from me that the Rik, the Sama, the Yajus, and the Atharvan Vedas spring, and it is in me that they all enter when the time cometh. Brahmanas devoted to asceticism, they that value Peace as the highest attribute, they that have their souls under complete control, they that are desirous of knowledge,


'Markandeya continued, 'Having said so unto me that wonderful Deity vanished, O son, from my sight! I then beheld this varied and wondrous creation start into life.

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