I want to know, What is a dream and how they relay in sleep only? How much night's fourth quarter dreams are true? If yes, then how much time they take place in dreamer's life? If no, why these dreams come during sleep ?
The Mandukya Upanishad speaks of 4 states of consciousness, the waking, dream, dreamless, and the Turiya (which is the Supreme Reality, Pure Consciousness). The second state, the dream state, is called Taijasa (Mandukya IV). The objects seen in the dream state are impressions from the waking state. They are nothing but the internal workings of the mind. They are nothing more than internal mental states. The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (IV. iii. 9) says:
Then [when he falls asleep] after having taken away with him [a portion of the] impressions from the world during the waking state, [destroying and building up again] he experiences dreams by his own light.
Gaudapada goes into greater detail in Chapter II of his Karkika (commentary on the Mandukya U. as to why dreams are unreal and unassociated with events in the waking state (Also Brihadaranyaka Upanishad IV. iii. 10).
The only time that a dream may be real is when the Lord himself comes to you in a dream, sometimes in the form of your guru or a very holy saint, to give you spiritual instruction.
Some dreams can indicate the future like for Pandava soldiers. They used to see Ashwatthama and an elderly lady brutally killing them in their dreams.
On other days, O sire, the foremost warriors of the Pandava camp used to see in their dreams that figure leading away the sleeping combatants and Drona's son smiting them behind! The Pandava soldiers saw that lady and Drona's son in their dreams every night from the day when the battle between the Kurus and the Pandavas first commenced. Afflicted before by Destiny, they were now smitten by Drona's son who terrified them all with the frightful roars uttered by him. Afflicted by Destiny, the brave warriors of the Pandava camp, recollecting the sight they had seen in their dreams, identified it with what they now witnessed.
That dream did become a reality.
Terrified at that noise, many awoke from sleep. Possessed with fear, blinded by sleep, and deprived of their senses, those warriors seemed to vanish (before the fury of Ashvatthama). The thighs of many were paralysed and many were so stupefied that they lost all their energy. Shrieking and possessed with fear, they began to slay one another. Drona's son once more got upon his car of terrible clatter and taking up his bow despatched many with his shafts to Yama's abode. Others awoke from sleep, brave warriors and foremost of men, as they came towards Ashvatthama, were slain before they could approach him and were thus offered up as victims unto that Death-Night. Crushing many with that foremost of cars, he careered through the camp, and covered his foes with repeated showers of arrows. Once again with that beautiful shield of his, adorned with hundred moons, and with that sword of his which was of the hue of the welkin, he careered amidst his enemies. Like an elephant agitating a large lake, Drona's son, irresistible, in battle, agitated the camp of the Pandavas.
According to tatva vada dream is projected by lord himself dreams experience are as real as waking state in dream state that is profound what ever bad Karma's you had done, god would project you with suffering take away or reduce the bad karma. the dream projection happens in throat but viewer, mukyaprana and projector i.e god reside in heart centre, there four states Pragnya, thyjasa, thuria and sushupthi(applicable only for yogis) some people would dream in waking state that they call it vision.dream in fourth quarter is significant some times it may represent future there is dreamology to interpret dream if see white dress girl going away good sign if see red dress girl it's danger all in they there to warn you.
Ramanyana trishada was asking the demonness to stop torturing sita devi because she had dream of Ravana dressed in Red carrying lotus flower and seated in bull going in south direction, and declare that Ravana will be killed along with all his mighty army by this dream. basically at that time Ravana was in high he had captured sita, Rama was still in kiskintha searching sita.
Sita devi on meeting Hanuman checks by asking whether its dream meeting monkey.. because monkey dream are interpreted as inauspicious. Meanining some decit is happening behind you.
Mahabharata war on 17th day all the warriors in pandava camp dream of being killed ugly black creature. Eventually Aswattama possessed by Kalabhairava kills all the pandava warriors.
To negate effects of bad dream we should pary to vishnu as dushswapnaa nashanath(Vishnu Shashranama), destroyer of bad dreams.
Basically all dreams are both bad and good, They are warning signs
Almost same questions were referred by Kāmodā to Nārada in Padma Purāṇa
Why do dreams come?
This happens due to an imbalance of three - bodily doshas (tri-doṣas) viz. Vāta (वात), Pitta (पित्त), Kapha (कफ), in our body, on account of our own karmas (physical, mental, or otherwise).
In fact dreams are of three (or four) types as per Padma Purāṇa:
Chapter 120 - Nārada on Dreams, Section 2 - Bhūmi-khaṇḍa, Padma Purāṇa:
वातिकः पैत्तिकश्चैव कफजः सान्निपातिकः । स्वप्नः प्रवर्तते भद्रे मानवेषु न संशयः ॥१०॥
न जायते च देवेषु स्वप्नो निद्रा च सुंदरि । आदित्योदयवेलायां दृश्यते स्वप्न उत्तमः ॥११॥
सत्स्वप्नो मानवानां हि पुण्यस्य फलदायकः । अन्यदेवं प्रवक्ष्यामि स्वप्नस्य कारणं शुभे ॥१२॥
महावातांदोलनैश्च चलंत्यापो वरानने । त्रुटंत्यंबुकणाः सूक्ष्मास्तस्मादुदकसंचयात् ॥१३॥
बहिरेव पतंत्येते निर्मलांबुकणाः शुभे । पुनर्लयं प्रयांत्येते दृश्यादृश्या भवंति वै ॥१४॥
तद्वत्स्वप्नस्य वै भावः कथ्यते शृणु भामिनि । आत्मा शुद्धो विरक्तस्तु रागद्वेषविवर्जितः ॥१५॥
पंचभूतात्मकानां च मुषित्वैव सुनिश्चलः । षड्विंशतिसु तत्वानां मध्ये चैष विराजते ॥१६॥
Summarized Hindi translation by Gita Press
नारदजीने कहा-भद्रे ! मनुष्य जो स्वप्न देखते हैं, वह तीन प्रकारका होता है - वातिक (वातज), पैत्तिक (पित्तज) और कफज । सुन्दरी ! देवताओंको न नींद आती है न स्वप्न । मनुष्य शुभ और अशुभ नाना प्रकारके स्वप्न देखता है। वे सभी स्वप्न कर्मसे प्रेरित होकर दृष्टिपथमें आते हैं। पर्वत तथा ऊँचे-नीचे नाना प्रकारके दुर्गम स्थानोंका दर्शन होना वातिक स्वप्न है। अब कफाधिक्यके कारण दिखायी देनेवाले स्वप्न बता रहा हूँ। जल, नदी, तालाब तथा पानीके विभिन्न स्थान-ये सब कफज स्वप्नके अन्तर्गत हैं। देवि ! अग्नि तथा बहुत-से उत्तम सुवर्णका जो दर्शन होता है, उसे पैत्तिक स्वप्न समझो। अब मैं भावी (भविष्यमें तुरंत फल देनेवाले) स्वप्नका वर्णन करता हूँ-प्रातःकाल जो कर्मप्रेरित शुभ या अशुभ स्वप्न दिखायी देता है, वह क्रमशः लाभ और हानिको व्यक्त करनेवाला है। सुन्दरी ! इस प्रकार मैंने तुमसे स्वप्नकी अवस्थाएँ बतायीं । भगवान् श्रीविष्णुके सम्बन्धमें यह बात अवश्य होनेवाली है, इसी कारण तुम्हें दुःस्वप्न दिखायी दिया है।
English Translation by N.A. Deshpande
- O good lady, dream (of four kinds), viz. gouty (Vāta), bilious (Pitta), due to excess of phlegm (Kapha), and having a complicated derangement of the three bodily humors, is (seen) among human beings. There is no doubt about it.
- to 15a. O beautiful lady, neither dream nor sleep exists among gods. The best dream is seen at the time of sunrise. A good (i.e. an auspicious) dream gives human beings the fruit of their religious merit. O you auspicious one, I shall tell you (about) another cause of the dream. O you beautiful one, water shakes due to the rockings of great wind. From that mass of water small drops of water are split. O auspicious one, these pure drops of water fall out. They again disappear. Thus they become manifest and unmanifest. O beautiful lady, listen. The occurring of a dream is said to be like that.
How do they (the dreams) relay in sleep only?
अन्नाहारेण संपुष्टैरंतरात्मा सुखं व्रजेत् । सुसुखाज्जायते मोहस्तस्मान्मनः प्रमुह्यति ॥३१॥
पश्चात्संजायते निद्रा तामसी लयवर्द्धिनी । नाडीमार्गेण यः सूर्यो मेरुमुल्लंघ्य गच्छति ॥३२॥
तदा रात्रिः प्रजायेत यावन्नोदयते रविः । विषयांधकारैर्मुक्तस्तु अंतरात्मा प्रकाशते ॥३३॥
भावैस्तत्त्वात्मकानां तु पंचतत्त्वैः प्रपोषितैः । पूर्वजन्मस्थितैः पिंडैरंतरात्मा प्रगृह्यते ॥३४॥
स यास्यति च वै स्थानमुच्चावचं महामते । संसार अंतरात्मा वै दोषैर्बद्धः प्रणीयते ॥३५॥
कायं रक्षति जीवात्मा पश्चात्तिष्ठति मध्यगः । उदानः स्फुरते तीव्रस्तस्माच्छब्दः प्रजायते ॥३६॥
शुष्का भस्त्रा यथा श्वासं कुरुते वायुपूरिता । तद्वच्छब्दवशाच्छ्वासमुदानः कुरुते बलात् ॥३७॥
आत्मनस्तु प्रभावेण उदानो बलवान्भवेत् । एवं कायः प्रमुग्धस्तु मृतकल्पः प्रजायते ॥३८॥
ततो निद्रा महामाया तस्यांगेषु प्रयाति सा । हृदि कंठे तथा चास्ये नासिकाग्रे प्रतिष्ठति ॥३९॥
बाहू संकुच्य संतिष्ठेद्धृद्गतो नाभिमंडले । आत्मनस्तु प्रभावाच्च उदानो नाम मारुतः ॥४०॥
प्रजायते महातीव्रा बलरोधं करोति सः । यथा रज्ज्वा प्रबद्धस्तु दारु कीलधरः स्थितः ॥४१॥
तथा चात्मासु संलग्नः प्राणवायुर्न संशयः । अंतरात्मप्रसक्तस्तु प्राणवायुः शुभानने ॥४२॥
बुद्धिवद्रोहितो भद्रे अंतरात्मा प्रधावति । पूर्वजन्मार्जितान्वासान्स्मृत्वा तत्र प्रधावति ॥४३॥
तत्र संस्थो महाप्राज्ञः स्वेच्छया रमते पुनः । एवं नानाविधान्स्वप्नानंतरात्मा प्रपश्यति ॥४४॥
उत्तमांश्च विरुद्धांश्च कर्मयुक्तान्प्रपश्यति ।
The pure soul is the highest Brahman, it is eternally awake; but the inner soul is bound by the great constituents of Prakṛti. When they are well-fed after having eaten food, the inner soul would be happy. Due to great happiness delusion is produced and due to it the mind errs. Then is produced sleep, which is of the nature of darkness (or ignorance) and increasing repose. When the sun would go along the path of Nādī (?) after having crossed Meru, then night would occur till the sun does not shine. The inner soul, when free from the darkness of the objects of sense, shines with the modes of the nature of the elements. The soul is seized by bodies of the former existences and nourished by the five elements. O you highly intelligent one, he goes to a high or a low position. The soul bound by faults is taken to the worldly existence. The individual soul protects the body, the middle one remains behind. The strong (vital air called) udāna throbs, and from that sound is produced. As a dry bellows when filled with air heaves, similary samudāna strongly breathes due to sound. Udāna would be powerful due to the prowess of the soul. The body thus deluded becomes almost dead. Then that very delusive sleep goes (i.e. spreads) over his limbs. It proceeds over the heart, neck, mouth, tip of the nose. Contracting his hands he would remain. The air named Udāna is produced in the circle of the navel due to the prowess of the soul. He is very strong and checks power. There is no doubt that as the holder of a wooden wedge remains when tied with a rope, similarly, the vital air is well-connected with the soul. O you of an auspicious face, the vital air is connected with the inner soul. Having knowledge and reddened the inner soul runs. Recollecting the abodes obtained in the former existences, he runs there. Remaining there the very wise one enjoys as he likes. Thus the inner soul sees dreams of various kinds. He sees the excellent ones, opposite of them, (all) united with his acts.
Padma Purāṇa 2.120.(31-44)
How much night's fourth quarter dreams are true?
प्रभाते दृश्यते स्वप्नो भव्यो वाभव्य एव च । कर्मयुक्तो वरारोहे लाभालाभप्रकाशकः ॥ ४८ ॥
When a dream is seen in the morning, something nice will take place. It is united with one’s acts, and shows gain or loss, O beautiful lady.
Padma Purāṇa 2.120.48
As per Kāmikāgama, the dream that is seen in the fourth quarter of the night, is immediately manifested - becomes true.
This is what Kāmikāgama (Uttara Pada) says -
॥ स्वप्नाध्याय विधिः ॥
तत्र हि प्रथमे यामे स्वप्नो यदि भविष्यति । लक्षयेदात्मनः काले फलभाक्त्वं द्विजोत्तमाः ॥२॥ संवत्सरे तु सिद्धिस्स्यात् द्वितीये यामके यदि । षण्मासेन तु सिद्धिस्स्यात् तृतीये यामके यदि ॥३॥मासेनैव तु सिद्धिस्स्यात् चतुर्थे यामके यदि । शीघ्रमेव फलं तस्य भविष्यति न संशयः ॥४॥
- Knowing the Effects of Dreams
If such dream occurs in the first quarter of the night, the disciple would reap its benefit during its own course of time within one year. If it occurs in the second quarter of the night, the effect of the dream would materialize within six months. If it occurs in the third quarter of the night, the effect of the dream would be seen within one month. If the dream occurs in the fourth quarter of the night, its effect would manifest immediately. There is no doubt about such occurrence of the effects of the dreams.
(Part Two) English Translation by Dr. S.P. Sabharathanam Sivacharya
Dreams classification examples, as per Padma Purāṇa (2.120)
Examples of Vāta (gouty) type dreams -
गिरींस्तथा सुदुर्गांश्च उच्चावचान्प्रपश्यति ॥४५॥ तदेव वातिकं विद्धि...
He sees mountains, great inaccessible places, and high and low places.
Examples of Kapha (Phlegm) type dreams -
....कफवत्तद्वदाम्यहम् जलं नदीं तडागं च पयः स्थानानि पश्यति ॥४६॥
He sees water, a river, a lake, and places of water.
Example of Pitta (bilious) type dreams -
अग्निं च पश्यते देवि बहुकांचनमुत्तमम् । तदेव पैत्तिकं विद्धि भाव्यं चैव वदाम्यहम् ॥४७॥
he sees fire and ample, excellent gold. Know that (dream) to be caused by biliousness.
How to analyse dreams ?
- For reading what constitute as bad dream or good dream, one can read Chapter 229 - The significance of Dreams (svapna-adhyāya), from the Agni Purāṇa.