I always think what was the start.
- How it started?
- Who was the creator?
- Who created god?
- Who created the creator?
- Where did the solid material, to create planets, come from?
Can anybody explain me the above points in detail?
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From the scientific point of view, questions below are answered with various recognized concepts:
There is a very famous Big Bang theory, according to which everything got created out of a small singular dot (ब्रह्मांड). With General theory of relativity, it was found by (virtual) travelling backwards in time + space that the singular dot was with infinite density and temperature. Some of the experts suggest that, Big Bang is Not a 1 time phenomena and they have happened in past and/or continuously happening somewhere in this infinite universe.
Information on material planet formation can be found in Nebular Hypothesis which explains the construction of solar systems.
Science doesn't answer the ones below:
It was Brahma who created everything and that's why we call the universe as ब्रह्मांड (BrahmAnd). Some of the slokas from Bhagavad Gita do indicate towards the creation of universe.
Few other interesting slokas, which are also indicative to the multiple big bang theory:
BG 8.17, 8.18, 8.19
— By human calculation, a thousand ages taken together form the duration of Brahmā’s one day. And such also is the duration of his night.
— At the beginning of Brahmā’s day, all living entities become manifest from the unmanifest state, and thereafter, when the night falls, they are merged into the unmanifest again.
— Again and again, when Brahmā’s day arrives, all living entities come into being, and with the arrival of Brahmā’s night they are helplessly annihilated.
Brahma came out from the Navel/नाभि (Nucleus) of Supreme Soul of all. It is the supreme soul or the God who created everything ultimately:
— I am the father of this universe, the mother, the support and the grandsire. I am the object of knowledge, the puriﬁer and the syllable oṁ. I am also the Ṛg, the Sāma and the Yajur Vedas.
— Of all creations I am the beginning and the end and also the middle, O Arjuna. Of all sciences I am the spiritual science of the self, and among logicians I am the conclusive truth.
— Of letters I am the letter A, and among compound words I am the dual compound. I am also inexhaustible time, and of creators I am Brahmā.
This is something unanswered till date! And may be only after complete self realization, one can answer it. For now, we can assume that God was always there, is continuously present and will remain as it is in its unmanifested form.
Never was there a time when I did not exist, nor you, nor all these kings; nor in the future shall any of us cease to be.
I have edited my answer to go through each of your points in detail.
Before addressing each point, let me begin by stating that 'creation' is the wrong word. Hindu scriptures all refer to 'projection', not 'creation'. Creation has a connotation of something coming out of nothing, and this idea comes from the common Christian concept of the beginning to the world as told in the Genesis book of the Bible. Hindu scriptures (as interpreted by Sankara, Ramanuja, and Madhva) refer to projection - the universe is projected out of Brahman. Projected out of Brahman came the material(s) from which the 'things' of the universe were formed. When Hindu commentators use the word create, or creation, they mean manifestation of form, they do not mean something out of nothing. Admittedly the three major commentators disagree on what the universe and the souls of the universe ‘are’ after the initial projection.
Second, Hindu scriptures (and again the three major commentators are in agreement), say that the universe is infinite in space and eternal in duration (Brhadaranyaka Upanishad V.i.1), it never had a beginning and it will never have an end (Sri-Bhasya 2.1.35 and Ramanuja’s commentary on the verse)...Instead the scriptures say that there are cycles, of alternate activity and rest or non-activity (Gīta 9.7). One possible interpretation, from a modern scientific cosmology universe standpoint, is to think of the 'big bang' as the start of a new cycle. There were an infinite number of universes before the big bang of this cycle and there will an infinite number after the end of this cycle. Others have compared cycles to individual solar systems (or perhaps by extension, individual galaxies).
You ask: How did it start? -and- Who created the creator?
Brahman is the cause of the universe (Sri-Bhasya 1.1.2 and Taittirya Upanishad III. 1.). Saguna Brahman, the Causal Brahman (Isvara) is the cause of the universe. From Brahman came OM, the initial vibration. The Prasna Upanishad (V. 2.) says:
He replied: O Satyakama, the syllable AUM is the Supreme Brahman [Nirguna Brahman] and also the other Brahman [Saguna Brahman]. Therefore he who knows it attains, with its support, the one or the other.
And the Mandukya Upanishad (I.) says:
Harih AUM! AUM, the word, is all this [i.e. the whole universe]. A clear explanation of it is as follows: All that is past, present, and future is, indeed, AUM. And whatever else there is, beyond the three-fold division of time--that also is truly AUM.
Other examples include Katha Upanishad (I. ii. 15) "It is AUM"; Katha Upanishad (I. ii. 17) "This AUM is the best support"; Taittiriya Upanishad (I. viii. 1) "AUM this word is Brahman."
Swami Nikhilananda says (The Upanishads, V2, pp 223-224):
The ultimate identity of AUM is thus explained: The phenomenal world consists of ideas or mental states [many great modern physicists have held that the universe is a Great Thought. See Quantum Physics and Ultimate Reality: Mystical Writings of Great Physicists, Editor Michael Green]. Ideas depend upon words for their expression. The utterance of the word AUM (A,U,M) gives the clue to the pronunciation of all words or sounds uttered by human beings. The various parts of the vocal organ that are used in the utterance of all sounds are also used in the pronunciation of AUM. Therefore AUM is the matrix of all sounds, which in their diversified forms give rise to the words used in language.
You ask: Where do the solid materials to create planets come from?
From Saguna Brahman came akasa, which is best translated as ether or space. Materials need space to exist in, so the first created is akasa. After akasa came the other subtle elements--from akasa came vayu (air); from vayu came agni (fire); from agni came ap (water); from ap came prithivi (earth). These are subtle elements, not gross elements (Taittiriya Upanishad 2.1.1 and Vedantasara 57 and 59).
The gross elements are combinations or compounds of these different subtle elements (Vedantasara 60 and 98). My personal interpretation is that to try and think of the subtle elements as being in part 'states' of the gross elements; vayu or air - gaseous, agni or fire - plasma, ap or water - liquid, and prithivi or earth - solid. All gross matter exists in one of these states (and yes, physics defines plasma is a state of matter, think of the material in the sun).
You ask: Who was the creator? -and- Who created the god(s)?
After the manifestation or 'creation' of space and matter, came the physical systems and living beings. This is covered in the Prasna Upanishad, first chapter. Swami Nikhilananda's summary of this chapter is:
The Upanishad commences with a description of the creation of living beings [this includes the gods]. The first entity to be manifested in the phenomenal universe is the Cosmic Mind, known by such names as prana, Prajapati, Brahma, and Hiranagarbha. He is the totality of all souls and permeates all living beings. The entire creation--gross and subtle, macrocosmic and microcosmic--is the projection of prana. Prana manifests itself as the sun (the source of cosmic energy), and time, and food. Food is the direct cause of the birth of living beings. The creation is spiritual and not mechanistic.
For a good summary of the ‘creation’ there are two sources. One is The Gīta chapter 9, verses 4-10. The other is from the Rig Veda (x. 129. 1-7). These verses are commonly called the Nasadiya Hymn, or the hymn of creation. Here is the Nasadiya Hymn (English translation from Swami Prabhavananda) [tad ekam - THAT]:
Existence was not, nor its opposite,
Nor earth, nor heaven's blue vault, nor aught beyond.
The subtle elements that are the veil
Of this so insubstantial world, where then
Might they find out a place? By whom be known?
The deep abyss of waters--where was that?
Death was not yet, nor deathlessness; the day
Was night, night day, for neither day nor night
Had come to birth. Then THAT, the primal font
Of life--breathless--to its own maya joined--
Brooded eternally. Itself beside,
In the wide universe there nothing was.
In the beginning gloom--gloom hidden in gloom!
From its cause undistinguished stood the world:
But lo, thereafter, from its darkling state--
Yet undistinguished from its cause--it rose,
By the pure will of THAT made manifest.
Whence came this will? From out a seed it came
Asleep within the heart of THAT--the seed
Of vanished worlds that have in order wheeled
Their silent courses from eternity:
The manifest in the unmanifest they found--
The sages, searching deep within themselves...
Ah, what are words and what all mortal
thought? Is there truly knows, and who can say,
Whence this unfathomed world, and from what cause?
Nay, even the gods were not! Who, then, can know?
The source from which this universe hath sprung,
That source, and that alone, which bears it up--
None else: THAT, THAT alone, lord of the worlds,
In its own self contained, immaculate
As are the heavens above, THAT alone knows
The truth of what itself hath made--none else!
Hindu creation myths comes in various forms and narratives. Hindu texts do not provide a single canonical account of the creation; they mention a range of theories of the creation of the world, some of which are even contradictory. Many consider these legends as allegories or metaphors. I'll try to provide for a few of them here,
It explains something called a cosmic egg or Hiranyagarbha. It goes on to suggest a single creator deity. After Mahapralaya, there was darkness everywhere. Everything was in a state of sleep. There was nothing, either moving or static. Then Svayambhu, Self-manifested Being arose, which is a form beyond senses. It created the primordial waters first and established the seed of creation into it. The seed turned into a cosmic womb, Hiranyagarbha. Then Svayambhu entered in the egg.
In Vishnu Purana, the Purusha is same as the creator deity Brahma, and is a part of Vishnu. The Shaivite texts mention the Hiranyagarbha as a creation of Shiva. According to the Devi-Bhagavata Purana Purusha and Prakriti emerged together and formed the Brahman, the supreme universal spirit that is the origin and support of the universe. 1
Who really knows?
Who will here proclaim it? Whence was it produced?
Whence is this creation?
The gods came afterwards, with the creation of this universe.
Who then knows whence it has arisen?
This sloka/sutra from RgVeda expresses ambiguity and ignorance and skepticism in the creator and the knowledge thereof. Astronomer Carl Sagan quoted it in discussing India's "tradition of skeptical questioning and unselfconscious humility before the great cosmic mysteries.
This chapter in RgVeda presents the nature of Purusha or the cosmic being as both immanent in the manifested world and yet transcendent to it. Purusha is described as all that has ever existed and will ever exist. The gods then performed yajna with the Purusha, leading to the creation of other things in the manifested world from his various body parts and his mind.
state that the Prajapati performs tapas to reproduce himself. He releases the waters and enters them in the form of an egg that evolves into the cosmos. The Prajapati emerged from the golden egg, and created the earth, the middle regions and the sky. With further tapas, he created the devas. He also created the asuras, and the darkness came into the being.
mentions that only the "Atman" (the Self) existed in the beginning. The Self-created the heaven (Ambhas), the sky (Marikis), the earth (Mara) and the underworld (Ap). He then formed the Purusha from the water. He also created the speech, the fire, the prana (breath of life), the air and the various senses, the directions, the trees, the mind, the moon and other things.
mentions that in the beginning, only the Atman existed as the Purusha. Feeling lonely, the Purusha divided itself into two parts: male ("pati") and female ("patni").
In Samkhya evolution is symbolized by the Sanskrit term parinama. The Samkhya texts state that there are two distinct fundamental eternal entities: the Purusha and the Prakriti. The Prakriti has three qualities: sattva, rajas and tamas. When the equilibrium between these qualities gets disturbed, the act of creation starts. Rajas leads to creation.
The Advaita Vedanta states that the creation arises from Brahman, but it is illusory and has no reality. The world is created out of Maya.
This is my personal favourite. From Maha-Vishnu springs forth the vast expanse of water known as the Kshira-Sagara wherein the material creation takes place. Maha-Vishnu then reclines in the waters of the Causal Ocean in a state called yoga-nidra. Thus, it is said that the universal creation is nothing but the dream of Maha-Vishnu. He is said to create and destroy innumerable Universes in his dream.
I will try to keep my answer brief-
How it started? A: There is no start. The Universe is the result of Avidya (ignorance) which is anaadi (without beginning) but with an end. The creation and destruction of Universe happens cyclically.
Who was the creator? A: This can have multiple answer depending on the context. If you are speaking about creation of only Gross, Vital, and Mental universes (Bhu, Bhuvah, Svah or Annamaya, Pranamaya and Manomaya kosha), then the creator is Brahmaa (not Para-Brahman) or Hiranyagarba.
If you are speaking about this complete manifested Universe (Sambhuti) including Hiranyagarba, then the creator is Ishwara who is associated with Unmanifested Seed/Prakriti (or Saguna Brahman).
But, if one is speaking about the creation of everything, both the manifested cosmos (Sambhuti) and the unmanifested Seed (Asambhuti). Then, it is Para-Brahman, who is nirguna etc. who is the source of this Universe.
But, it must be noted that, there is no real creation. From standpoint of Parabrahman, it is ajam (without birth). The whole Cosmos is just an appearance, an apparent manifestation that Para-Brahman does out of his own power of Maya. Just as a magician conjures an illusive elephant.
Who created the god? A:I presume by "god" (using lower cases), you are referring to deities, or limited aspect of God. Well, Tattiriya Upanishad says, Brahman is the source of all created beings. That then includes even the manifestations of gods. At other places, Brahmaa/Hiranyagarba is described as Prajapati and other gods are called as Prajapatya-Sons of Prajapati. Therefore, it is Para-Brahman who manifested as Brahmaa/Hiranyagarba is the creator of various forms of deities.
Who created creator? A: If, by creator, you mean Brahmaa/Hiranyagarba, as mentioned above, he arose out of Unmanifested Seed/Prakriti, which inturn is only an apparent manifestation of Para-Brahman.
If the question is about Para-Brahman, then there is no creator of Para-Brahman, because from standpoint of Brahman, he himself does not create anything, nor does he undergo any creation. Para-Brahman is Nirguna, Advaita and Aja. He is without guna, without duality and without birth. In other words, he is eternal, without birth and without death. And hence, Isha Upanishad calls Para Brahman as "Svayambhu"- Self existing or one who always exist on his own without any source or support.
You may like to go through these 3 articles I had written-
The Two Aspects of Creation- Maya and Lila -https://nithinsridhar.wordpress.com/2013/01/10/the-two-aspects-of-creation-maya-and-lila/
The Manifest and the Unmanifest - https://nithinsridhar.wordpress.com/2013/11/17/random-musings-part-20-the-manifest-and-the-unmanifest/
The birth of the universe is with Big Bang Explain In Rig Veda.
very nice Hymn in Rig Veda (Sukta 129th in the tenth Mandala), about the origin and creation of universe and is written more than 5000 years before. It has explained same idea about creation of universe long back that everything started with an infinitely dense, zero space entity called singularity in modern science and the Hymn is known as 'Nasadiya Suktam'. Here is the original Sukta with English translation
Nasadiya Suktam Original Text:
नास॑दासी॒न्नो सदा॑सीत्त॒दानी॒म् नासी॒द्रजो॒ नो व्यो॑मा प॒रो यत्।
किमाव॑रीव॒: कुह॒ कस्य॒ शर्म॒न्नंभ॒: किमा॑सी॒द्गह॑नं गभी॒रम्॥१॥
nāsa̍dāsī̱nno sadā̍sītta̱dānī̱m nāsī̱drajo̱ no vyo̍mā pa̱ro yat |
kimāva̍rīva̱ḥ kuha̱ kasya̱ śarma̱nnaṁbha̱ḥ kimā̍sī̱dgaha̍naṁ gabhī̱ram ||1||
Neither existence nor nonexistence was there, Neither matter nor space around. What covered it, where it was and who protected. Why, that plasma, all pervading, deep and profound?
न मृ॒त्युरा॑सीद॒मृतं॒ न तर्हि॒ न रात्र्या॒ अह्न॑ आसीत्प्रके॒तः।
आनी॑दवा॒तं स्व॒धया॒ तदेकं॒ तस्मा॑द्धा॒न्यन्न प॒रः किञ्च॒नास॑॥२॥
na mṛ̱tyurā̍sīda̱mṛta̱ṁ na tarhi̱ na rātryā̱ ahna̍ āasītprake̱taḥ |
ānī̍davā̱taṁ sva̱dhayā̱ tadekaṁ̱ tasmā̍ddhā̱nyanna pa̱raḥ kiñca̱nāsa̍ ||2||
Neither death nor immortality was there, And there was neither day nor night. But for that breathless one breathing on its own, There was nothing else, surely nothing.
तम॑ आसी॒त्तम॑सा गू॒ळ्हमग्रे॑ऽप्रके॒तं स॑लि॒लं सर्व॑मा इ॒दं।
तु॒च्छ्येना॒भ्वपि॑हितं॒ यदासी॒त्तप॑स॒स्तन्म॑हि॒ना जा॑य॒तैकं॑॥ ३॥
tama̍ āasī̱ttama̍sā gū̱ḻhamagre̍’prake̱taṁ sa̍li̱laṁ sarva̍mā i̱daṁ |
tu̱cchyenā̱bhvapi̍hitaṁ̱ yadāsī̱ttapa̍sa̱stanma̍hi̱nā jā̍ya̱taika̍ṁ || 3 ||
It was darkness concealed in darkness, And an uninterrupted continuum of fluid. Out came in material form and shape, That one lying deep inside, on its own intent.
काम॒स्तदग्रे॒ सम॑वर्त॒ताधि॒ मन॑सो॒ रेत॑: प्रथ॒मं यदासी॑त्।
स॒तो बन्धु॒मस॑ति॒ निर॑विन्दन् हृ॒दि प्र॒तीष्या॑ क॒वयो॑ मनी॒षा॥४॥
kāma̱stadagre̱ sama̍varta̱tādhi̱ mana̍so̱ reta̍ḥ pratha̱maṁ yadāsī̍t |
sa̱to bandhu̱masa̍ti̱ nira̍vindan hṛ̱di pra̱tīṣyā̍ ka̱vayo̍ manī̱ṣā ||4||
In the cosmic mind all pervading, Desire, the primal seed made its first appearance. And the wise men, seeking deep in their heart, Could see the link between ‘that is’ and ‘that is not’.
ति॒र॒श्चीनो॒ वित॑तो र॒श्मिरे॑षाम॒धः स्वि॑दा॒सी ३ दु॒परि॑ स्विदासी ३ त्।
रे॒तो॒धा आ॑सन्महि॒मान॑ आसन्त्स्व॒धा आ॒वस्ता॒त्प्रय॑तिः प॒रस्ता॑त्॥५॥
ti̱ra̱ścīno̱ vita̍to ra̱śmire̍ṣāma̱dhaḥ svi̍dā̱sī 3 du̱pari̍ svidāsī 3 t |
re̱to̱dhā āa̍sanmahi̱māna̍ āasantsva̱dhā ā̱vastā̱tpraya̍tiḥ pa̱rastā̍t ||5||
Reins of the link, a grid of crisscross lines, Holds all the seeds and mighty forces, Microcosmic forces within, And macro forces out above.
को अ॒द्धा वे॑द॒ क इ॒ह प्र वो॑च॒त्कुत॒ आजा॑ता॒ कुत॑ इ॒यं विसृ॑ष्टिः।
अ॒र्वाग्दे॒वा अ॒स्य वि॒सर्ज॑ने॒नाथा॒ को वे॑द॒ यत॑ आब॒भूव॑॥६॥
ko a̱ddhā ve̍da̱ ka i̱ha pra vo̍ca̱tkuta̱ āajā̍tā̱ kuta̍ i̱yaṁ visṛ̍ṣṭiḥ |
a̱rvāgde̱vā a̱sya vi̱sarja̍ne̱nāthā̱ ko ve̍da̱ yata̍ āaba̱bhūva̍ ||6 ||
Who really knows, who can declare, When it started or where from? And where will the creation end. Seekers and sought entered later, And so who knows when all this manifested?
इ॒यं विसृ॑ष्टि॒र्यत॑ आब॒भूव॒ यदि॑ वा द॒धे यदि॑ वा॒ न।
यो अ॒स्याध्य॑क्षः पर॒मे व्यो॑म॒न्त्सो अ॒ङ्ग वे॑द॒ यदि॑ वा॒ न वेद॑॥ ७॥
i̱yaṁ visṛ̍ṣṭi̱ryata̍ āaba̱bhūva̱ yadi̍ vā da̱dhe yadi̍ vā̱ na |
yo a̱syādhya̍kṣaḥ para̱me vyo̍ma̱ntso a̱ṅga ve̍da̱ yadi̍ vā̱ na veda̍ || 7 ||
That one, out of which the creation came, May hold the reins or not, Perceiving all from above, That one alone, Knows the beginning or may not know too.
In this answer I will not be quoting the exact verses initially, however I will be providing the links wherein you can read. There are already all the Vedic references in the previous answers (which I originally intended to add). So there's no need to add them here. I'll however be adding the Puranic sources.
The Vedic concept of creation includes the "HOW" and the "WHY" of the entire cosmic manifestation.
What was there before creation?
Supreme personality of godhead, Lord Krishna who is beyond material creation exists before creation and after annihilation. Period after annihilation and before creation all living entities are dormant in the form of the Lord. [SB 3.5.23]
Reason for creation
The compassion of the Lord towards living entities: Lord is mercifully putting so much endeavour from His side to reclaim conditioned beings, creating universe, residing as supersoul in heart to guide and sanction jiva’s desires, maintaining and winding the universe, sending acharyas to reclaim fallen souls and so on. [SB 3.5.3]
The Lord felt incomplete without His plenary expansions and unsatisfied, so he desired to create the manifestation. The material potency was dormant. [SB 3.5.24]
CREATION IN BRIEF (From Srimad Bhagavatam)
janma sarga udahrtah
visargah paurusah smrtah
The elementary creation of sixteen items of matter—namely the five elements [fire, water, land, air and sky], sound, form, taste, smell, touch, and the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin and mind—is known as sarga, whereas subsequent resultant interaction of the modes of material nature is called visarga.
atmanah saha saktibhih
muktir hitvanyatha rupam
The merging of the living entity, along with his conditional living tendency, with the mystic lying down of the Maha-Visnu is called the winding up of the cosmic manifestation. Liberation is the permanent situation of the form of the living entity after he gives up the changeable gross and subtle material bodies.
puruso ’ndam vinirbhidya
yadasau sa vinirgatah
atmano ’yanam anvicchann
apo ’sraksic chucih sucih
After separating the different universes, the gigantic universal form of the Lord [Maha-Visnu], which came out of the causal ocean, the place of appearance for the first purusa-avatara, entered into each of the separate universes, desiring to lie on the created transcendental water [Garbhodaka].
antah sarira akasat
ojah saho balam jajne
tatah prano mahan asuh
From the sky situated within the transcendental body of the manifesting Maha-Visnu, sense energy, mental force and bodily strength are all generated, as well as the sum total of the fountainhead of the total living force.
pranenaksipata ksut trd
antara jayate vibhoh
pipasato jaksatas ca
pran mukham nirabhidyata
The living force, being agitated by the virat-purusa, generated hunger and thirst, and when He desired to drink and eat, the mouth opened.
mukhatas talu nirbhinnam
tato nana-raso jajne
jihvaya yo ’dhigamyate
From the mouth the palate became manifested, and thereupon the tongue was also generated. After this all the different tastes came into existence so that the tongue can relish them.
vivaksor mukhato bhumno
vahnir vag vyahrtam tayoh
jale caitasya suciram
When the Supreme desired to speak, speeches were vibrated from the mouth. Then the controlling deity Fire was generated from the mouth. But when He was lying in the water, all these functions remained suspended.
tatra vayur gandha-vaho
ghrano nasi jighrksatah
Thereafter, when the supreme purusa desired to smell odors, the nostrils and respiration were generated, the nasal instrument and odors came into existence, and the controlling deity of air, carrying smell, also became manifested.
atmanam ca didrksatah
nirbhinne hy aksini tasya
jyotis caksur guna-grahah
Thus when everything existed in darkness, the Lord desired to see Himself and all that was created. Then the eyes, the illuminating god Sun, the power of vision and the object of sight all became manifested.
jighrksatas tvan nirbhinna
tatra cantar bahir vatas
tvaca labdha-guno vrtah
When there was a desire to perceive the physical characteristics of matter, such as softness, hardness, warmth, cold, lightness and heaviness, the background of sensation, the skin, the skin pores, the hairs on the body and their controlling deities (the trees) were generated. Within and outside the skin is a covering of air through which sense perception became prominent.
gatim jigisatah padau
padbhyam yajnah svayam havyam
karmabhih kriyate nrbhih
Thereupon, because of His desiring to control movement, His legs became manifested, and from the legs the controlling deity named Visnu was generated. By His personal supervision of this act, all varieties of human being are busily engaged in dutiful occupational sacrifice.
nirabhidyata sisno vai
upastha asit kamanam
Thereupon, for sexual pleasure, begetting offspring and tasting heavenly nectar, the Lord developed the genitals, and thus there is the genital organ and its controlling deity, the Prajapati. The object of sexual pleasure and the controlling deity are under the control of the genitals of the Lord.
nirabhidyata vai gudam
tatah payus tato mitra
Thereafter, when He desired to evacuate the refuse of eatables, the evacuating hole, anus, and the sensory organ thereof developed along with the controlling deity Mitra. The sensory organ and the evacuating substance are both under the shelter of the controlling deity.
asisrpsoh purah purya
tatrapanas tato mrtyuh
Thereafter, when He desired to move from one body to another, the navel and the air of departure and death were combinedly created. The navel is the shelter for both, namely death and the separating force.
nadyah samudras ca tayos
tustih pustis tad-asraye
When there was a desire to have food and drink, the abdomen and the intestines and also the arteries became manifested. The rivers and seas are the source of their sustenance and metabolism.
tato manas candra iti
sankalpah kama eva ca
When there was a desire to think about the activities of His own energy, then the heart (the seat of the mind), the mind, the moon, determination and all desire became manifested.
The seven elements of the body, namely the thin layer on the skin, the skin itself, the flesh, blood, fat, marrow and bone, are all made of earth, water and fire, whereas the life breath is produced by the sky, water and air.
The sense organs are attached to the modes of material nature, and the modes of material nature are products of the false ego. The mind is subjected to all kinds of material experiences (happiness and distress), and the intelligence is the feature of the mind’s deliberation.
etad bhagavato rupam
sthulam te vyahrtam maya
astabhir bahir avrtam
Thus by all this, the external feature of the Personality of Godhead is covered by gross forms such as those of planets, which were explained to you by me.
atah param suksmatamam
nityam van-manasah param
Therefore beyond this [gross manifestation] is a transcendental manifestation finer than the finest form. It has no beginning, no intermediate stage and no end; therefore it is beyond the limits of expression or mental speculation and is distinct from the material conception.
sattvam rajas tama iti
tatrapy ekaikaso rajan
bhidyante gatayas tridha
According to the different modes of material nature—the mode of goodness, the mode of passion and the mode of darkness—there are different living creatures, who are known as demigods, human beings and hellish living entities. O King, even a particular mode of nature, being mixed with the other two, is divided into three, and thus each kind of living creature is influenced by the other modes and acquires its habits also.
The birth of the universe (Brahma) is followed by the life of the universe (Vishnu) and the destruction of the universe (Shiva).
As far as I know and as per Shiv Mahapuran, Lord Shiva is the supreme of God, he is the one who started by creating Vishnu and then Brahma was generated from stomach of Vishnu. At the beginning there was nothing except the fire(Jyoti of Lord Shiva).
Then Lord Shiva allocated task of creating universe and human beings to Brahma and task of sustaining universe to Vishnu and himself took the task as a destroyer when required.