The Hindu texts are classified in Shruti (श्रुति) and Smriti (स्मृति). I want to know:
- What is the difference between Shruti and Smriti?
- What scriptures are included in Shruti & in Smriti?
Due to very much significance/influence of Brahmanas (ब्राह्मणग्रन्थ), it is considered as the part of Veda and hence classified as Shruti. Sayanacharya in his Bhashya on Rigveda, said that मंत्र ब्राह्मणात्मको वेद which means Mantra(मंत्र) and Brahmanatmak(ब्राह्मणात्मक) combined forms Veda. मन्त्रब्राह्मणयोर्वेदनामधेयम् (From Aapstamb Srauta Sutra) means Mantra as well as Brahmana parts are Veda.
Brahmanas constitutes Aaranyaka (आरण्यक) at the end and Aaranyaka constitues Upanishads(उपनिषद्) at the end. In other words, Aaranyaka are extracted from Brahmanas and Upanishads are extracted from Aaranyaka (except from Isha Upanishad which is the last part of Shulka Yajurveda Samhita). So, Vedas are generally classified into to 1.Samhita 2.Brahmana 3.Aaranyaka 4.Upanishad
Hence Four Vedas i.e Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda and Athrvaveda with Samhita, Brahmana, Aaranyaka & Upanishad are Shruti texts.
These are texts written/composed by Rishi and handed down by tradition. So, in contrast to Shruti which is authorless (divine origin), Smriti is derivative work (produced out of intellect) that is usually attributed to an author. Smriti texts are written on the basis of or inspired by Shruti but given less importance/supremacy than Shruti.
Major Smriti scriptures are: Vedang(वेदाङ्ग), Upaveda(उपवेद), Upang(उपांग), Dharma-Sutra/Shstra(धर्मसूत्र) [including popular Smriti scriptures by sage Manu, Yajnavalkya, Narad, Parasar etc.] and other Sutras, 18 Purans(पुराण), Itihasa i.e Ramayana, Mahabharata (Bhagavad Gita) etc., Commentaries(भाष्य) on various Shruti texts by Aacharyas including Brahma Sutra etc. and various scriptures on Darshan Shastra (Sankhya,Yoga, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa, Nyaya etc.)
Above mentioned classification of Smriti (e.g everything other than Shruti) is in broader sense whereas in specific/strict sense, Smriti refers to 18 Smriti texts which are also called Dharma Shastras and hence Vedangas, Puranas, Darshanas, Itihasas etc. are classified in separate categories.
Aagama(आगम) (literally means 'that which has come down' or 'acquisition of knowledge' ) scriptures (Including Tantra and Yantra part) are also often considered as Shruti scriptures parallel to Nigama(निगम) (i.e Vedas). (Though some Aagamic scripture is not considered as Shruti/canonical sometimes). Visit What are the Agama scriptures? Are they related to Shruti/Vedas? for further information.
Shruti when translated to English is 'that which is/was heard(by ancient seers/Rishis)'.
So in hinduism there is only one scripture or literature which is heard (from the divine bramhan) that is Vedas, only the
Samhita part of the Vedas is shruti since it is the only part that was heard by Rishi's in their deep meditations. So due to divine origin shruti is highest Shabda pramana, no one can deny this.(Everyone including nastika Purva Mimansa School Accepts this).
List of Shruti texts
Yajur Veda (Samhita, Bramhanas, Aranyaka, Upanishads)
Samaveda (Samhita, Bramhanas, Aranyaka, Upanishads)
Atharva Veda (Samhita, Bramhanas, Aranyaka, Upanishads)
I have written is/was in first line because Shruti's are always heard if listener is at level of ancient seers/Rishi's.
Ideally and in my opinion only Samhitas of Vedas are Shruti, but whole Vedas are considered Shrutis(with all four limbs) due to their flawless compilation by Veda Vyasa.
Smriti translates to 'That which must be remembered'.
The remembrance is focused here due to the everyday requirement of jisp of these texts. Smriti's address our everyday life problems. The problems that we get during following our dharma(be it Swadharma , Matrudharma, Manushyadharma etc).Smriti's in General do not have divine origin they have a author who is one of the seers of Shruti's or person with Equivalent status.
Like in case of Arjuna before the Start of Kaurava Pandava War he had to choose to either fight relatives or give up his Kshatra dharma Arjuna Vishad Yoga. Second case of Yudhishthira when he had to choose to lie and do the Adharma or to Speak the truth to Dronacharya Death of Dronacharya.
I am listing only important Smriti texts(ranked according to my priority) Full list of Smriti texts
Shrimad Bhagwad Gita
Bramha-Sutras with suited commentary.
Bramha Vidya's Commentry on these Upanishads to be remembered for lifetime
Itihas (Ramayana, Mahabharata etc.)
Puranas (Because of multiple conflicts)
"Sruti" means which has been heard.Sruti refers to the Vedas.
"Smriti" however refers to the Dharma Shastras.Smriti means which has to be remembered.It also means traditions that has to be remembered.So,Smritis are the traditions that are handed down to us from time immemorial.
There are 18 major Smritis :Manu,Yajnvalkya,Vyasa,Atri,Vishnu,Harita,Parashara,Yama,Daksha,Brihaspati etc are few of them.Apart from these major ones there are a few more minor ones which are called the Upasmritis.
As far i'm concerned Sruti and Smriti are the two eyes of Almighty.And this is not merely my belief.It has been so stated in Hindu Scriptures only.
Nârada said :– “O Muni! The S’âstras are not one, they are many and they lay down different rules and contradictory opinions, How then Dharma is to be followed? And according what Dharma S’âstra?” Nârâyana said :– S’ruti and Smriti are the two eyes of God; the Purânam is His Heart. Whatever is stated in S’ruti, the Smriti and the Purânams is Dharma; whatever else is written in other S’âstras is not Dharma. Where you will find differences between S’ruti, Smriti and Purânas, accept the words of the S’rutis as final proofs. Wherever Smriti disagrees with the Purânas, know the Smritis more authoritative.
The same thing has also been declared in a different way in other Scriptures like the Atri and Harita Smritis .
The S'ruti and the Smriti are described as the two eyes of the Vipras. One who is deficient in either of the two, is described as the one-eyed ; and one who is deficient in the both, as stone-blind. (344)
Therefore the Brahmanahood (i.e., the status and dignity) of a Brahmana[is encompassed] by both the Vedas and the Dharma-S'astras and not by the Vedas only. The divine Atri has said so. (346)(Atri Smriti,Chapter 1)
In the above passage,note that by Smritis Atri specifically mentioned the Dharma Shastras and not any other scriptures.
And, also note that, the Devi Bhagvatam mentions the Puranas and Smritis separately.This clearly proves that Smritis and Puranas are different categories of Hindu Texts.
Brahmana who is ignorant of the S'ruti and the Smriti, encompasses the destruction of the giver's family. Therefore a Brahmana, with all care, should study the Dharma-Shastras. (23,24)
The Sruti and the Smriti are the two eyes of the Brahmanas created by God. If deprived [of' the knowledge] of the one, [a person] is called one-eyed ;and if of the two, a blind. (25)(Harita Smriti)
So,the Harita Smriti also mean the Dharma Shastras only when it refers to Smriti.
Hence,Smritis are the Dharma Shastras. And Srutis are the Vedas. This confusion needs to be cleared(that any scripture which is not Sruti is Smriti).
And,Smritis,Puranas,Itihasas,Vedangas,etc can together be and loosely called as the "Hindu Shastras".
Now,regarding the relative importance of Sruti-Smriti, an interesting read,that clarifies a lot of confusions,is a book called Hindu Dharma,which is a collection of the speeches of Sri Sri Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi MahaSwamiji (at various times during the years 1907 to 1994).
If interested you can read the whole passage on the same page.Here i am quoting only portions from it which i consider as the essence(of the whole chapter).
The experience constituted by the Vedas and manifested as the memory is the Smriti or Dharmasastra. Smriti does not become Smriti without its Vedic root. Are not the Vedas the"experience" that is the source of the Smrtis? Without such a source the name suggesting "notes of memory" would be meaningless. How can we describe as notes of remembrance" anything that is new and is not founded on something prior to it?
There is no second opinion regarding the fact that what is called "Srauta"(directly mentioned in the Vedas) is wholly authoritative. But what is not directly mentioned in Sruti but included in Smriti - that is Smarta - is not to be taken to be less authoritative. Smarta never contradicts Srauta. In some matters Smritis may go beyond Sruti, but that too is fully authoritative being based on the inner spirit of Sruti. Just as the Sthala Puranas fill in the gaps in the major Puranas and the epics, so the Smritis speak of what is left out in the Vedas. We use terms "Sruti pramana" and "Smriti pramana"(the authority of the Vedas and the authority of the Smritis), but making such a distinction does not mean that we should treat Sruti and Smriti different or that we should think that the one is inferior to the other.
Vedas are considered Shruti scriptures. Shruti scriptures have been heard unlike the Smriti scriptures which are remembered. Shruti scriptures are believed to be the record of the intuitive perception of Vedic Rishis of the Divine. Smriti scriptures have human authors and are considered to be commentaries on the Divine Vedas.
Shruti scriptures include the 4 Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and probably 108 Upanishads. Smriti scriptures include Itihasas like Ramayana and Mahabharata, Dharma Shastras, Nibandhas, Puranas, Agamas and Tantras, Darshanas and many other writings like Yoga Vasishtha and Panchatantra.
Yes the classification is accordingly Shruti and Smriti.
The Shrutis : Shruti means 'to hear', so all the books which are been heard by the rishis come under a general term called Shruti. The Shruti are the most sacred of the two types. The Shrutis are more truthfull and in case of hinduism termed as perfect and flawless. The books under this category are very few being Vedas, Upnishads and Bhagwat Gita. As they are heard and termed as coming directly from god.
The Smritis : Smirti comes from word Smaran meaning 'to remember'. As all the souls were created at the very beginning of this universe ( yes this universe, not any other because hinduism also talks about parallel universes ) which can be related to the time of big bang theory ( depicted as golden egg hatching in hinduism ). Now as all the souls are travelling since then taking birth and rebirth, they do forget things after a while. Many yogis and rishis meditate and try to remember what would have taken place in there previous lives even going back to when their soul was first created ie. The tiime of the big bang or the golden egg hatching. As they are trying 'to remember' (which the meditation learning is all about) everything which exists and they write there findings and remembrance on book known as Smritis. The Smriti are termed not to be followed strictly, because they are not perfect and contains flaws. The Smritis talk about circumstances in the perspective of the rememberer that is why many puranas conflict in stories. The books underthis is everything : The Shastras, The Puranas, The Uppuranas and everything else remaining but not Vedas, Upnishads and Bhagwat Gita.
Shruti is everything that is God bound or freedom bound as primary goal. This is universal knowledge and time tested. This knowledge doesn't change, but more stuff is revealed as time goes by. The owner of shruti is 'GOD'.
Smriti is every knowledge that is country bound - culture, history, personality, society. This is knowledge applied to a particular society which show up as traditions. Of course traditions can change. The owner of smriti is 'INDIA' for e.g.
you are right. Shruti is Ved. Smriti came much later and has way of life. Adi Shankarcharya has given us 3 sources for Vedic knowledge - Prasthaan Trayee 1. Ved (its called Updesh prasthan) _ GOD Sadashiv samrambham 2. Geeta (called Sadhana Prasthan - how to get knowledge) - by Ved Vyasa - 2000 BC. 3. Brhamsutra (called nyaay prastan as Badaryan defended Vedic religion against attacks from Buddhist on the philosophy) 300 BC
Smruti came much later - Some of the Smruti were written in Shalivahan's dynesty. He asked soem pandits to write whatever they remember - so they may or may not have authentic knowledge but the rules for society. Same with Puranas - they are stories. Hence it is not included in Prastan (authentic source of knowledge)