When generating a horoscope for a person, what is the Panchang to be used? There are two major panchangs, Vakya and Thirukanitha (Tamil name; I don't know what it is called in other states). Out of these two, which is advised for use? Which Panchang will give exact results?

There are two groups of astrologers each following one of the two Panchangs. And the horoscope generated by them have different values. Which will be the correct one?

What Panchang did Vashista use to generate the horoscope of Lord Rama?


7 Answers 7


Note that I'm basing my answer on largely on this site and this site, both of which use the Drik Panchangam, so that might bias the arguments somewhat.

The Vakya Panchgangam system, as used for instance in the famous Pambu Panchangam and the Sri Rangam Panchangam, originates in an ancient astrological work called the Surya Siddhanta. The Surya Siddhanta covers many topics in astrology, but most notably it has a section with a collection of simple mnemonic devices that describe how to determine the location of the heavenly bodies like the Sun and Moon, based on trigonometric calculations that were quite advanced for its time. These mnemonic devices, written in the form of simple sentences with easy-to-remember words (Vakya), were extremely accurate in describing the motions of heavenly bodies at the time of composition. But the author knew that they would only be accurate for a very short amount of time, so he wrote that these Vakyas should be regularly updated by observing the actual positions of the heavenly bodies using the human eye and then modifying the Vakyas to match the latest motions of those bodies.

And accordingly future generations kept rewriting the Vakyas, but unfortunately the last person to make an update was the Indian astronomer Bhaskaracharya nearly a thousand years ago. So practitioners of the Vakya Panchangam are relying on astronomical calculations that are incredibly out of date. That is why people often use Drik Ganitha Panchangam, AKA Thiruganitha Panchgam, where you don't rely on the Vakyas at all, and instead rely on the actual positions of the the heavenly bodies. Drik comes from the Sankrit word "drishti" meaning sight, because it originally relied on naked-eye observations, but Drik-Panchangam websites today rely upon methods that are even more precise than the naked eye, like sophisticated modern astronomical calculation techniques, as well as Ephemeris data from NASA.

Yet there are lots of people that still rely on Vakya Panchangam. Why? Well, it's tradition to use the Vakyas, as the Surya Siddhanta is considered divine. But the extent to which the Surya Siddhanta is out of date was demonstrated by the 1950 solar and lunar eclipses, where the Vakya Panchangams published dates and times for the eclipses that were dramatically different from what actually occurred. From that time onwards even the publishers of Vakya Panchagams have started using certain astronomical data, like eclipse times taken from Drik Panchangam publications.

So if you want the most accurate information out there, it's advisable to use modern Drik Panchangams found on the Internet, but there is the downside that you're not keeping with the old traditions. What would be ideal is if someone today were to write updated Vakyas. People up to the time of Bhaskara were willing to do that, but in the modern day people are too scared to make changes to the Sanskrit words of the illustrious writers of the past. But that concern may be unfounded; we have excellent Sanskrit writers living today, like Rambhadracharya whose work has been compared favorably to that of Kalidasa. I think someone like that may be qualified to rewrite the Vakyas of the Surya Siddhanta, if they only have the courage to do so.

And to answer your other question, this site says "Maharishi Vashistha and Varahamihira have said to make the panchangam as per Druka ganita." So presumably that's what Vashishta used for Rama's horoscope.

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    @ViswalingaSuryaS Thanks. So bottom line, if you're going for accuracy, you should use Thiruganitha. Jul 10, 2014 at 1:00

We have the computer, the algorithms to generate the planetary position of different time zones and for different year. But before computers, people (especially Astrologers) used to check planet positions of specific year via panchang only.

Vedic Panchang helps you to locate, which planet was in which zodiac sign at what time etc. there are five essential parts of the vedic panchang, listed below;

  1. Tithi
  2. Nakshatra
  3. Vaar
  4. Yoga
  5. Karan


So, all these five parts of panchange keeps changing daily and gives different results for different person. This is the reason, astrologers uses Panchang to generate horoscope. You get to know which moon sign is of the specific day, which nakshtra was there at your birth time.

All these information you can get from Panchang easily.


Vakya is basically a mathematical theory for calculations. Does not account for actual observations.

Drik is based on actual observation but needs constant updation based on observation. Nasa data is based on actual observation because they have to land a craft in mars. Nasa revises it ephemeris every few years.

However for most calendrical calculations Vakya is more than satisfactory provided the mathematical theories are rewritten taking into account certain corrections which are obtained from actual observations. This is like the French VSOP theory.

As on date my honest opinion is all Jyotish related calculations are not updated and do not follow the writings of the Rishis. This is the effect of Kali when the Vedas are not quite well understood.


The Panchang is an ancient Vedic calendar that provides important dates and astrological information for Hindus. It is used to determine auspicious times, festival dates, and other important events. The word "Panchang" comes from the Sanskrit words "Panch" (meaning "five") and "Ang" (meaning "limbs"), and it refers to the five elements of the calendar: Tithi (lunar day), Nakshatra (constellation), Yoga, Karana, and Var (weekday).

The question of which Panchang to use, Vakya or Thirukanitha (also known as Drik Ganit in other regions), has been a topic of debate among astrologers for many years. Both have their merits, and the choice often depends on regional and traditional preferences.

Vakya Panchangam: This is based on traditional methods and scriptures. The term 'Vakya' means "saying" or "traditional statement". Vakya Panchangam uses traditional systems to calculate planetary positions. It has been passed down through the ages and is used by many astrologers in South India, especially in Tamil Nadu.

Thirukanitha (Drik Ganit) Panchangam: This method is based on mathematical calculations and modern astronomical data. It is considered more accurate by some due to its reliance on precise mathematical methods and contemporary astronomical data.

Which Panchang gives exact results? Astrology is a blend of science, art, and intuition. Different astrologers will swear by the accuracy of one over the other based on their experiences and training. Some astrologers believe that the Thirukanitha Panchangam is more precise due to its mathematical rigor, while others value the Vakya Panchangam for its traditional roots and spiritual significance.

Regarding the horoscope of Lord Rama: Ancient scriptures like the Ramayana, where the story of Lord Rama is narrated, do not delve into the specifics of which Panchang was used. Vashista, who is said to have cast the horoscope of Lord Rama, lived in an era long before the distinctions of Vakya and Thirukanitha were established. The methods used during that time were based on ancient Vedic astrology, which would have been distinct from the systems we have today.

In conclusion, both Panchangs have their merits, and the "correct" one often depends on individual belief, training, and regional practices. It's essential to understand that astrology, while grounded in ancient knowledge and practices, also has subjective elements. If you are personally seeking astrological guidance, it's crucial to consult with an astrologer whose methods resonate with you.


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In Hindu astrology, the Panchang is a traditional Hindu calendar that provides important astronomical data such as planetary positions, lunar phases, auspicious times, and other celestial events. It is used extensively in the preparation of horoscopes or birth charts (kundalis). The Panchang helps astrologers determine the most auspicious times for various activities and rituals.

The key components of a Panchang typically include:

Tithi (lunar day) Yoga (a combination of specific degrees of the sun and the moon) Karana (half of a Tithi) Vaar (weekday) Yoga (an auspicious period) Karana (half of a Tithi) Nakshatra (lunar mansion) Karana (half of a Tithi) Tithi (lunar day) Sunrise and sunset timings Rahu Kaal (inauspicious period for certain activities) Gulik Kaal (another inauspicious period)

Each of these components plays a crucial role in determining the overall astrological outlook for an individual or specific events. Astrologers refer to the Panchang to accurately calculate the positions of celestial bodies at the time of birth, which is essential for creating an accurate horoscope or birth chart.


There is another type of panchangam called thirukanitham, widely used a panchangam in india. One Page Horoscope is based on thirukanitha panjanagam


vakya panchangam is used in all temples. Guru peyarchi and sani peyarchi are even today conducted based on vakya panchangam only in Thiruchendur/Alankudi and Yhirunallar. the main abodes of Guru and Saturn. Many leading astrolers are also following vakya only

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